Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Xanthosoma robustum
Schott, Araceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Xanthosoma roseum Schott

Common name(s): [more details]

Hawaiian: ‘ape

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Plants very large and conspicuous, the caudex usually procumbent, often 1-4 meters long and 10-20 cm thick; petioles 40-180 cm long or much longer, vaginate to the middle; leaf blades sagittate-ovate, often two meters long but usually shorter, short-cuspidate, the basal lobes half as long as the anterior one, the blades glabrous, grass green above, pale beneath; tube of the spathe 6-10 cm long, 6 cm broad, oblong-ovoid, greenish, the limb twice as long, ovate-lanceolate, acute, greenish or whitish outside, white or pink within, 12-25 cm long and 10-25 cm wide; spadix stipitate 8 mm, slightly shorter than the spathe, the pistillate portion 3-4.5 cm long, almost 2 cm thick" (Standley & Steyermark, 1958; pp. 360-361).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i "commonly naturalized in wet places" (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 613). In Guatemala, "wet soil, usually in marshy or boggy ground, in the open, in thickets, or in thin forest, 900 meters or lower, most plentiful at low elevations. The plant grows most often in boggy soil near stream banks, where it sometimes forms wide colonies" (Standley & Steyermark, 1958; pp. 360-361).

Propagation:  Seed?

Native range:  Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (p. 10)
As Xanthosoma roseum Schott. Voucher cited: C. Imada 99-32 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 613)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, G. W./Woolliams, K. R. (1997) (pp. 13-16)
As Xanthosoma roseum Schott. Voucher cited: T. Flynn 3768 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 2)
As Xanthosoma roseum Schott. Vouchers cited: Eest Maui: Degener 20102 (BISH), Oppenheimer H69912 (BISH). West Maui: Oppenheimer H79907 (BISH).
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Staples, G. W./Woolliams, K. R. (1997) (pp. 13-16)
As Xanthosoma roseum Schott. Vouchers cited: K. Woolliams s.n. (BISH sheets 641379, 641380), Waimea Arboretum staff [D. Orr] s.n. (BISH sheets 642260-642266), G. Staples 1131 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-15)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Steyermark, Julian A. (1958) (pp. 360-361)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 10 FEB 2005 and was last updated on 27 OCT 2006.