Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Vinca major
L., Apocynaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: man chang chun hua

English: bigleaf periwinkle, greater periwinkle, large periwinkle, periwinkle

Spanish: herba donzella, previnca

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems glabrous, long and partly trailing or running and rooting at nodes, with terminal part often ascending, forming dense mats often covering many square meters. Petiole (5)-7-20 mm long; margins hirsute. Lamina (3)-4-10 x (1.8)-2.5-7 cm, ovate, usually dark glossy green above, rarely variegated white and green; midrib hairy above; margins ciliate; base mostly rounded or subcordate, sometimes truncate or broad-cuneate; apex obtuse or acute. Pedicels 2.5-4 cm long, slender. Calyx 0.9-1.7 cm long; lobes linear-subulate, ciliate, glandular towards base. Corolla tube c. 1.5 cm long; limb (3)-3.5-5 cm in diameter, mauvish blue; lobes obliquely obovate; apex truncate or obtuse. Anthers slightly wider than long. Follicles 3.5-5 cm long, the apical part very narrow and pointed, constricted between seeds. Seeds 7-8 mm long, oblong, strongly corrugated; margins inrolled"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 142).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests, grassland, riparian habitats, coastal dunes.  A fast growing plant that spreads mainly by vegetative growth.  It is a vigorous creeper, occurring in large infestation in semi-shady conditions.  The numerous intertwined stems form dense and thick mats that cover the ground, smother small plants and crowd out native species.  Establishment of shrub and tree seedlings is prevented"  (Weber, 2003; p. 451).

In New Zealand, "waste places, particularly in the shade of trees and shrubs by riverbanks, roadsides, cemeteries and around gardens"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 142).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Watering conditions: Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).  Light conditions: In shadow, steep slopes facing south or a vegetation cover which filters 40-80% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed, shoots.  "Periwinkle can be troublesome in gardens because the long shoots run over the ground and root at the nodes"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 142).

Native range:  Europe (Albania, Former Yugoslavia, France, Italy, Spain), exact native range obscure; widely naturalized elsewhere, especially in the Mediterranean region (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Occurring locally as a garden escape.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Occurring locally as a garden escape.
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 501, 547, 558)
Voucher cited: Danton B(440)397. "En RC, está presente desde mucho tiempo y resulta ser invasora en el territorio de la Ilustre Municipalidad de Jan Fernández. Hace poco encontramos el cv. ‘variegata’ en algunos jardines del pueblo de San Juan Bautista. Es una especie que hay que limitar drásticamente su extención".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1943) (voucher ID: BISH 24106)
Taxon name on voucher: Vinca major L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (pp. 17-18)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990105-2 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Frequently cultivated as an ornamental, occasionally naturalized near habitation".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated for medicine. Jiangsu, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 142)
A widespread escape from cultivation naturalised in all districts.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated for medicine.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings are easy to hand pull, small infestations can be dug out.  Solarization by plastic sheeting for 4-6 months is used to kill smaller infestations"

Chemical:  "Larger infestations can be mown or slashed and the regrowth treated with herbicide.  Effective herbicides are glyphosate or triclopyr.  Follow-up treatments are necessary to control seedlings and regrowth"  (Weber, 2003; p. 451).


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This page was created on 17 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.