Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Vicia sativa subsp. nigra
(L.) Ehrh., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zhai ye ye wan dou

English: black-pod vetch, common vetch, narrow-leaf vetch, spring vetch

Spanish: averijilla

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Climbing annual herbs up to 8 dm long, pubescent.  Leaflets 6-16, opposite, linear, lanceolate to oblong or obcordate, 6-20 (-30) mm long, (1-) 4-12 mm wide, pubescent, apex acute to emarginate and mucronate, stipules ovate-acuminate, 3-5 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, with a purple nectary, usually with a dentate lateral lobe sometimes longer than the main body.  Flowers axillary, 1-2 (-4) in condensed racemes; calyx teeth subequal, shorter to longer than the tube, lower 3 teeth with a conspicuous yellowish brown nectary; corolla reddish purple, 10-30 mm long, standard usually paler than wings and keel; style dorsoventrally flattened, bearded below the stigma along the abaxial side, apex encircled by hairs.  Pods brown to nearly black, oblong, (25-) 35-80 mm long, 4-12 mm wide, not stipitate.  Seeds subglobose to lenticular, 2.5-5 mm in diameter, hilum extending 1/6-1/5 of the circumference" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 717).

Subspecies nigra is characterized by "linear leaflets 1.5-6.5 mm wide, corollas 10-18 mm long, pods 4.5-6 mm wide, and seeds 2.5-4 mm in diameter".
Subspecies sativa is characterized by "obovate leaflets 6-12 mm wide, corollas 18-30 mm long, pods 6-11 mm wide, and seeds 4-5 mm in diameter" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 717).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized primarily in dry to moist pastures, 860-2,130 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 717).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, commonly introduced as a fodder plant (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 717).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
subsp. angustifolius
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"Locally common on grassy roadsides, etc.". Vouchers cited: A.N. Rodd 1213 (K, NSW), R.D. Hoogland 8721 (CANB, NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"Locally common on grassy roadsides, etc.". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1393 (A); G. Uhe 1198 (K); P.Ralston 65 (A, K); 1898, I. Robinson (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 501, 547, 558)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/300)1645. "En RC, la encontramos en el pueblo de San Juan Bautista.  Su introducción reciente, probablemente unida a las importaciones constantes de ganado y de forraje, probablemente abre para ella un rico porvenir en la isla y sin duda a mediano plazo en el Archipiélago".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 717-718)
Voucher cited: Rock s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood & D. Boynton 11915 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 717-718)
East Maui
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (p. 32)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 090504-06 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 98)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 699)
"Waste places, grassland, coastal sites, gardens, forest margins, palustral".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 450)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated and possibly naturalized, forests, hedges, hill slopes, grasslands, dry pastures, creek banks, farms, orchards, fields, cultivated land, margins of cultivation, wastelands, roadsides; sea level to 3000 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 155)
Vicia sativa L. Green manure, forage.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 699)
"Waste places, grassland, coastal sites, gardens, forest margins, palustral".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated and possibly naturalized, forests, hedges, hill slopes, grasslands, dry pastures, creek banks, farms, orchards, fields, cultivated land, margins of cultivation, wastelands, roadsides; sea level to 3000 m".
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)


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This page was created on 8 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 27 OCT 2006.