Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Veronica persica
Poir., Plantaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Veronica agrestis var. byzantina Sm.; Veronica byzantina (Sibth. & Sm.) Britton et al.; Veronica tournefortii C. C. Gmel.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: a la bo po po na

English: bird-eye, bird-eye speedwell, common field-speedwell, creeping speedwell, Persian speedwell, scrambling speedwell, winter speedwell

French: véronique de Perse

Japanese: o-inunofuguri

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annuals, sometimes biennials. Stems diffuse, ca. 10-20 cm tall, 20-50 cm, densely pubescent with multicellular hairs often more densely so along 2 lines. Opposite leaves in (2 or) 3 or 4 (or 5) pairs; petiole 1-8 mm; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to suborbicular, (6-) 10-20 (-25) x (5-) 8-15 (-20) mm, evenly sparsely pubescent on both surfaces, margin flat, obtusely crenate-serrate, 3-6 (-10)-toothed per side. Racemes terminal, lax, very long; bracts alternate, leaflike, petiolate, uppermost ones smaller than others. Fruiting pedicel (1.2-) 1.5-3 (-4) cm, usually longer than bract. Calyx 4-lobed; lobes ovate-lanceolate, 5-8 (-10) x 2.5-3.5 (-4) mm in fruit, sparsely pubescent, veins 3. Corolla usually blue, rotate, 0.8-1.4 cm in diameter, throat sparsely hairy; lobes ovate to orbicular. Stamens slightly shorter than corolla. Capsule obcordate, strongly compressed, 4-6 x 6-9 mm, apically notched at right to obtuse angle; lobes obtuse, glandular hairy, venation conspicuously reticulate. Style 2-3 mm, exserted. Seeds slightly navicular, usually 1.4-2.3 x 0.9-1.6 mm; seed coat deeply rugose dorsally"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In China, "naturalized in waste fields and roadsides; below 1700 m"  (Flora of China online).  In New Zealand, "Very common or abundant in arable land, waste open ground, roadsides, dry river beds, rough pastures and other open modified habitats"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1211).  In New South Wales, Australia, "Grows in pasture, disturbed sites, stockyards and as a weed of gardens; chiefly in coastal districts"  (NSW PlantNET).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Probable origin s.w. Asia; widespread weed, especially in temperate regions (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
"A fairly common introduced weed".
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
"A fairly common introduced weed".
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 462, 466, 558)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 462, 466, 558)
Voucher cited: Danton A(234)258
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1211)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 249)
On grassland.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1211)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 15 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 6 APR 2011.