Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Verbena rigida
Spreng., Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: veined verbena, verbena

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stiff, tufted, rhizomatous or stoloniferous, usually low perennial herbs; stems erect to spreading, forming spreading clumps, 1.5-10 dm long, branched, scabrous or hirsute.  Leaves opposite, rigid, oblong to oblong-lanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, 7.5-10 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, both surfaces scabrous to hispidulous and upper surface also rugose, margins somewhat revolute, coarsely serrate, apex acute, base subcordate and somewhat clasping the stem.  Flowers in short, dense, cylindrical spikes 1-5 cm long, these usually 3 in a decussate arrangement, glandular pubescent throughout, bracts lanceolate or subulate-lanceolate, as long as or up to 2-3 times longer than calyx; calyx red or green, cylindrical, 4-6 mm long, 5-toothed, the teeth subequal; corolla showy, usually purple to magenta, ca. 9-12 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1325-1326).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "apparently cultivated and escaped or perhaps naturalized on the Parker Ranch near Waimea" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1325-1326).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Central Brazil to northern Argentina, widely cultivated and naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1325-1326).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1325-1326)
Uncommon per Wagner et al.. Vouchers cited: Ewart III 193, Hosaka 2247, Stemmermann et al. 7136 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: OISC s.n. (BISH 727460). Plants removed by O‘ahu Invasive Species Committee.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Hoff 1303 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 98)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Vouchers cited: Franc 2114, Däniker 7a, MacKee 5680, Glanchon 1641, Suprin 1019 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Toutain 3796 (NOU)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 379)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 232)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1279)
"Cultivation escape around gardens, especially by hedges, on roadsides and waste places, occasionally on arable land".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 23 MAR 2012.