Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Verbascum virgatum
Stokes, Scrophulariaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: moth mullein, twiggy mullein, virgate mullein, wand mullein

Spanish: mitrún

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Biennial herbs 6-12 (-15) dm tall in the second year, glandular puberulent and hispid throughout, the hairs forked or simple.  Basal leaves obovate, 10-30 cm long, 4.5-9 cm wide, margins crenate to dentate; cauline leaves becoming progressively smaller toward the inflorescence, lanceolate, subsessile and somewhat clasping the stem.  Flowers in clusters of 1-5 per node, forming a racemose inflorescence, pedicels 2-5 mm long; calyx 5.5-8 (-9) mm long, the lobes lanceolate, glandular pubescent; corolla yellow, 15-20 mm long, the lobes pubescent externally; upper 3 staminal filaments densely white or violet villous, the lower 2 violet villous.  Capsules globose, 0.6-0.8 cm long, glandular puberulent and sometimes also with stellate or branched hairs"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1247-1248).

"Herbacée biannuelle, reconnaissable à sa rosette de longues feuilles, sa grande tige d’inflorescence dressée, atteignant 1 à 1,5 m de hauteur et portant de grandes fleurs à la corolle jaune d’or, et à ses fruits secs globuleux (capsules) contenant plusieurs graines" (Meyer, 2008; p. 27).

Habitat/ecology:  "Riverbanks, disturbed sites.  A plant that rapidly colonizes disturbed sites and forms dense patches due to the large rosette leaves.  Native plants are crowded out and their establishment is prevented"  (Weber, 2003; p. 449).

In Hawai‘i, "sparingly naturalized" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1247-1248). In New Caledonia, "ne paraît pas être cultivé à présent; parfois naturalisé, surtout aux îles" (MacKee, 1994; p. 129). In New Zealand, "open disturbed places, roadsides, railway yards, river banks and waste places, up to c. 900 m in the Mt Cook area" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1205).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6 - 10 months, precipitations of 100 mm-300 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Western Europe (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1247-1248).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
Not common. Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 137 (CHR), J. Pickard 2677 (NSW), J. Pickard 3448 (NSW), J.D. McComish 207 (NSW), J.D. McComish 207A (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 26-27, 30)
"Nous l’avons observée dans toutes les zones basses de l’île, notamment sur les plages sableuses de Anakena, les sites archéologiques comme à Tongariki ou Hanga Maihiku ou en bordure de falaises maritimes" (Meyer, 2008; p. 27).
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1247-1248)
Vouchers cited: Fagerlund & Mitchell 641 (BISH), Davis 613 (BISH)
Sparingly naturalized.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 129)
Voucher cited: MacKee 28203
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 129)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 14697, Suprin in Veillon 6211
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 129)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2172
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 129)
Voucher cited: MacKee 34538
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 129)
Voucher cited: MacKee 15788
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1205)

Control:  Control methods for Verbascum thapsus may apply.

"En raison de la faible densité de cette espèce, une lutte manuelle par arrachage des plantules et un traitement chimique par pulvérisation d’herbicide (glyphosate) sur les feuilles en phase de rosette est réalisable" (Meyer, 2008; p. 27).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 17 NOV 2005 and was last updated on 22 JAN 2011.