Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Urochloa plantaginea
(Link) R. D. Webster, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc.; Panicum plantagineum Link

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Alexander grass, marmalade grass, plantain signal grass

Spanish: gambutera, muela de caballo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Annual. Culms decumbent; 40-100 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 4-21 cm long; 6-13 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2-8; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2-11 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 10-20 cm long. Rhachis broadly winged; with sharp-edged midrib; 1-2 mm wide; scabrous on margins. Spikelet packing adaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; 0.5 mm long. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; acute; 4-5.5 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes. Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; clasping; 0.25-0.33 times length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 3.5-5 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface granulose; unwrinkled, or rugulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate; without keels. Palea surface granular, or rugose"  (GrassBase).

"Coarse glabrous or sometimes pilose annuals to 60 (-100) cm tall, spikelets 4-5 mm long, the first glume scarious, clasping, 1.5-2 mm long, second glume and sterile lemma similar, equal with slender prominent raised nerves and often with short ladderlike undulating raised veinlets between the nerves, the fertile lemma 3 mm long"  (Wagner & Herbst, 1995).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  West Africa, Mexico, central and south America; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 49)
Voucher cited: K.F. Bio 01-0028-01 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 10)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H109908 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2004) (p. 26)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 011031-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Hwwevar & Spence 5711 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (pp. 23-24)
Vouchers cited: Hosaka 2551 (BISH), Shinbara 0-81 (BISH), Hosaka 2609 (BISH), Higashino et al. 8199 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 10 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.