Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Urochloa mutica
(Forssk.) T.Q. Nguyen, Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf; Brachiaria purpurascens Henr.; Panicum barbinode Trin.; Panicum guadeloupense Steudel; Panicum muticum Forssk.; Panicum purpurascens Raddi

Common name(s): [more details]

English: buffalo grass, California grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, Mauritius grass, Para grass, Scotch grass, tall panicum, water grass

French: herbe borer, herbe de Guinée, herbe de Para

Maori (Cook Islands): mauku puakatoro

Spanish: gramalote, hierba de Pará, pasto Pará, zacuti Para

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial; culms decumbent and rooting at base, 2-5 m long, the nodes densely villous; sheaths mostly longer than internodes, papillose or papillose-pilose, densely short-puberulent on collar; ligule a row of hairs about 1 mm long; blades 10-30 cm long, 10-15 mm wide, acuminate, glabrous on both surfaces, margins scabrous; inflorescences 10-25 cm long, about half as broad, lowermost branches compound, upper simple, branchlets and upper branches bearing spikelets solitary or in 2's or 3's on 1 side of a flattened rachis, this, like main axis, angled, scabrous on angles; spikelets glabrous, pointed, about 3 mm long; first glume acute, about 1 mm long, not clasping at base; second glume and sterile lemma equal, the latter subtending a hyaline palea; fertile lemma slightly shorter, obtuse, minutely transversely rugose"  (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 868-869).

"Culms decumbent, rooting at the base, up to 2.4 m high, with densely hairy nodes, hairy sheaths, blades 10-30 cm long and 13 mm wide, glabrous.  Panicle up to 30 cm long, with numerous (about 10) spreading branches, 2.5-10 cm long; spikelets up to 4.5 mm long, elliptic, sometimes purplish rachis more or less flat, herbaceous, ribbon-like.  First glume 1/3-1/2 as long as the spikelet.  Fruit with minute transverse grooves (Stone, 1970; pp. 203-204).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Wet fields, ditches and gullies between sea level and 700 m. This perennial grass can reach heights of 2 m. It forms dense monotypic stands by layering from trailing stems. It will overgrow most shrubs and trees in its habitat. It has mild allelopathic activity (Chou and Young 1975).  Fire is rare in its habitat but the dense stands rapidly regenerate from any damage that they suffer" (Smith, 1985; p. 186). 

Invasive to 5000 feet in New Guinea (Henty, 1969; p. 39).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and usually forming dense mats in areas of high soil moisture or nearby open water, such as along stream banks, drainage ditches, and roadsides, as well as other disturbed sites, 0-1,060 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1504).  In Fiji, "widespread from sea level to about 800 m, especially in the wet zones, where it occurs in pastures and cultivated fields, along roadsides, on river banks, in swamps, in clearings, and along forest trails" (Smith, 1979; p. 329). In New Caledonia, "maintenant largement dispersé et souvent abondant en stations plus ou moins humides" (MacKee, 1994; p. 57).

"Interferes with stream flow and poses a nuisance to marine navigation when rafts of the grass float out to sea. Forms monotypic stands in forest openings and marshes, displacing native plants and destroying bird habitats."  (Motooka et al., 2003). "In moist or wet ground, sometimes growing in water, throughout tropical and subtropical America, usually at low altitudes; cultivated for forage" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 868-869).  In Australia, "wet or seasonally flooded areas in disturbed sites including flood plains, drainage lines and creek banks.  Can form dense floating mats 1-2 m thick over water bodies.  Can tolerate water depths up to 1 m.  A highly invasive grass that spreads vigorously, choking out native species and hindering re-establishment of more desirable species.  Will tolerate brackish water and is relatively shade tolerant." (Smith, 2002; p. 80).

Propagation:  Man is the principal dispersal agent (as a pasture grass). Spreads by seed, runners and cuttings; rarely flowers. "Also by floodwaters and birds" (Smith, 2002; p. 80).  "The plant reproduces and spreads mainly by stem fragments; seed production is low"  (Weber, 2003; p. 446).

Native range:  "Probably a native of Africa, but first described from Brazilian specimens.  It is now cultivated rather widely"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 203-204).  "A native or northern Africa, this grass was probably established in tropical America in the early days of trading" (Smith, 1979; p. 329).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 32)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 26891)
Taxon name on voucher: Urochloa mutica
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 572382)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 588367)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588986)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664868)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbatiki Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 329)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 329)
Voucher cited: DA 8751
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31655)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 329)
Vouchers cited: DA 8212, DA 8251, DA 8572, DA 8663, DA 8094, Meebold 17097, DA 8428, Gillespie 3461, Bryan 216, DA 3502, DA 3517, DA 8620
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31656)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 700002)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 700003)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 700004)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 700005)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 700006)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 700007)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 700009)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8457 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 540436)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 330)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4170, Florence 3508, Fosberg & Sachet 63226
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10378 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491711)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 588738)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 330)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4170, Florence 2835, Florence 2885
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2885 (PAP), J. Florence 3183 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491185)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491726)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492086)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38252)
Taxon name on voucher: Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T. Q. Nguyen
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 203-204)
Voucher cited: Stone 4095 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 125937)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 125938)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 125940)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 125941)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 588393)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 588985)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649487)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 699999)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000209)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1504)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1504)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1504)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1504)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110123 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1504)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 410766)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 3)
"Uncommon; ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0518200904
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement dispersée et souvent abondante en stations plus ou moins humides.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: cribs 832
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 163)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 461)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 594)
"Long-abandoned orchard on terraces above The Farm".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 234)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168778, CHR 168807, CHR 168808
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 46)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9659 (BISH)
"Cultivated as a forage grass".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 48)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 87)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3076)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum muticum Forsk.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3107)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum muticum Forsk.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432334)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432407)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 39)
Suitable from sea level to 5000 ft.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 191-194)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417774)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 52)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 71)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 58)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 97)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 644, Soakai 786
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1504)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island   Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (p. 24)
Not seen in this survey, probably eradicated.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 46)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 80)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 80)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 2)
As Brachiaria mutica
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 191-194)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 328)
As Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 193-195)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 52)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 193-195)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 191-194)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
As Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 191-194)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 193-195)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 193-195)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 89)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 191-194)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 191-194)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 191-194)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 106)
Naturalized
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 193-195)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning, 2010).

Control: 

Physical:  "Small infestations can be removed manually or by mechanical harvesters"  (Weber, 2003; p. 446).

Chemical: "A weed in wet open forests and aquatic environments.  Drizzle applications of glyphosate at 1 lb/acre with a good surfactant cleared Wailoa Pond in Hilo (Robert Nishimoto, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources) and Hanamā‘ulu Stream on Kaua‘i. A solution of 1-1.5% glyphosate product in water sprayed to wet the foliage provided control on Maui (Hank Oppenheimer, Maui Pine)"  (Motooka et al 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format). <

Additional online information about Urochloa mutica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Urochloa mutica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Urochloa mutica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3076(Timberlake, J. 3076).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3107(Timberlake, J. 3107).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1911. Voucher specimen #BISH 125938 (McGregor, R.C. 489).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 125937 (Nelson, P. 293).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 125940 (Nelson, P. 331).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 700002 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 216).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 700006 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 216).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 700003 (Gillespie, J.W. 3461).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 700005 (Gillespie, J.W. 3163.3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 700004 (Meebold, A. 17097).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1945. Voucher specimen #BISH 700007 (Greenwood, W. 1121).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 588986 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2981).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 700009 (Smith, A.C. 4749).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 588367 (Fosberg, F.R. 31325).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 699999 (Fosberg, F.R. 35276).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31655 (Parham, J.W. 8751).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 588985 (Fosberg, F.R. 35576).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 31656 (Maya, K. 9457).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1964. Voucher specimen #BISH 125941 (Stone, B.C.M. 5092).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 588393 (Evans, M. 1665).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417774 (Whistler, W.A. W341).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 410766 (Lamberson, J.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 432334 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3220).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 432407 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3220).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491185 (Florence, J. 2885).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491711 (Florence, J. 3508).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491726 (Florence, J. 3183).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 492086 (Florence, J. 2835).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 588738 (Fosberg, F.R. 63226).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 649487 (Herbst, D.R. 7167).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000209 (Herbst, D.R. 7167).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 572382 (Rinehart, A. LR12289).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 540436 (Florence, J. 8457).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 664868 (Sykes, W.R. 474383).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Haselwood, E. L./Motter, G. G. 1983. Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds. Second edition, revised and expanded by Robert T. Hirano. University of Hawaii Press. 491 pp.

Henty, E. E. 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 1. Lae, New Guinea. 215 pp.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Imada, Clyde. 2006. Flora of the Marshall Islands: Maloelap Atoll. Species determinations by Clyde Imada, Bishop Museum Herbarium, Hawai‘i. Unpublished checklist, 2 pp.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning. 2010. The landscape manual. Draft ninth edition, August 2010. 249 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. 1985. Contribution à la connaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis & Futuna. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4e sér., 7, section B. Adansonia 3 : 259-329.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG38252(Art Whistler W 4809).

Oppenheimer, Hank L. 2003. New plant records from Maui and Hawai‘i Counties. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 73:3-30.

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Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:447-462.

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Vander Velde, Nancy. 0. Nancy Vander Velde, pers. com.

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Whistler, W. A. 1983. Weed Handbook of Western Polynesia. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn. 151 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia 5(4):347-424.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Wiggins, I. L./Porter, D. M. 1971. Flora of the Galapágos Islands. Stanford University Press. 998 pp.

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Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.