Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Urena lobata
L., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Urena sinuata L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: pipiri

Chamorro: dádangse, dadangsi, dadangsi apaka, dadangsi machingat

Chinese: di tao hua

Chuukese: nognuk, ocher, sacawer

English: aramina, bur mallow, caesarweed, Congo jute, hibiscus burr, pink burr, pink Chinese burr, urena burr

Fijian: katiqani viti, nggatima, nggatima ni Viti, ngguatema, qatima, qatima ni viti

French: cousin uréne, jute africain

Hindi: gataya

Japanese: oobondekwa

Kwara‘ae: mamafuoli

Mangarevan: fuduah

Maori (Cook Islands): piripiri, purūmu, vavai tara tītā, vavai tara tītā

Marquesan: nehu, pou-éau, puehu, puepu, punehu haoe, pu‘unehu, rehu

Niuean: mosipo, motipo

Palauan: chosuched e kui, osuched a rechui

Pohnpeian: koaropw, korop, koropw

Rotuman: joan ne pija

Samoan: mautofu, mautofu, mautofu

Spanish: aramina, cadillo, malva blanca

Tahitian: piri piri, piri-piri, piripiri

Tongan: mo‘osipo, mo‘osipo Tonga

Yapese: karukur

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A subshrub 0.6 to 3 m in height and up to 7 cm in basal diameter. The species usually has a single stem emerging from the ground but normally produces several stems or major branches low on the stem and many branches throughout. The nearly smooth bark is tough and fibrous, brown on the outside and green within. Its pale yellow wood is of medium density. Plants are supported by a tap and lateral root system of tan or ivory-colored, tough and flexible roots. Grayish green, discolorous, alternate leaves are stellate-pubescent both above and below, ovate, angulate or shallowly lobbed, 1 to 12 by 1 to 12 cm, and have serrate margins. Axillary flowers are usually solitary and have five pink petals. The flowers are about 1 cm broad. The fruits are 8- to 10-mm globose capsules that break into five fine-barbed (glochidate) mericarps. (Howard 1989, Liogier 1994, Stevens and others 2001)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

"Erect subshrub to 1 1 m tall; leaves palmately lobed or angled, downy grayish pubescent with stellate hairs, 4-8 cm long, usually 5-lobed with the lobes again pinnatifid, or sometimes subentire but angled; flowers clustered; corolla pinkish-violet, about 1 cm broad; fruit pubescent and beset with hooked bristles (glochidia)" (Stone, 1970; pp. 417-418).

Some botanists recognize U. sinuata as a separate species or a variety. It is distinguished from U. lobata by having, among other characters, deeply lobed leaves in which the sinuses are rounded rather than acute (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 903).

Habitat/ecology:  "Readily invades disturbed areas, especially poorly managed pastures, scarified and eroded areas, and perennial crop plantations but is much less of a problem in annual crops. The species does not compete well in tallgrass swards and brushlands and does not grow under forest canopies. Ceasar weed grows on a wide variety of soils of varying fertility derived from most parent materials. It tolerates salt spray and a moderate amount of salt in the soil but does not grow in saturated soils. In Puerto Rico, it occurs in areas that receive from about 1400 to 3000 mm of mean annual precipitation, forming thickets in favorable sites"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Invades disturbed areas.  In New Guinea, "a weed of waste land, roadsides and pastures. Mostly at low altitudes, but occurring to 1500 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 124).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation disturbed areas, 20-30 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 903). In Fiji, "found at elevations from near sea level to the summit of Mt. Tomanivi, 1,323 m.  It is a pernicious weed abundantly naturalized in gardens, canefields, pastures, clearings, and grassland, and also found along forest trails and on open hillsides"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 431-432). In Tonga, "frequent as a roadside and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 182-183). In New Caledonia, "espèce sinon indigène, d'introduction ancienne aux îles du Pacifique Sud" (MacKee, 1994; p. 99).

Propagation:  Seed. Barbs on seed cling to fur and clothing.

Native range:  "Pantropical, but probably of Asiatic origin and spread into many parts of the world by aboriginal voyagers; it was doubtless brought into many Pacific areas in this manner"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 431-432).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 41)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9492, Whistler 3458
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9492 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 158813)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430294)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 47)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 545, Yuncker 9142
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 50)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 4142 (BISH), Garber 545 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 158811)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 158812)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 158814)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 10371)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 158806)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 38)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 158802)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 158805)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 158810)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 419274)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1898a (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1636 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1767 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 652885)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 83)
Voucher: Flynn 7091 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 387)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 89)
Voucher: Flynn 7037 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 362)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 95)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 100)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 158746)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 158770)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 20)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 158780)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 429410)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2463 (US), Glassman 2790 (US), Glassman 2866 (US), Hosokawa 6154 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 110)
Vouchers cited: A. Dores 55 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 224 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26409 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2790 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3517 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2463 (BISH), F. Sohl 34 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 158778)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 158779)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 158781)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 34890)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Tomil Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 158772)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 158771)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 652884)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Beqa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 448412)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: Smith 321
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 158787)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: Seeman 1
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420641)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: Milne 116
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: Graeffe 1591
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rambi Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: DA 3696
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618568)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4767
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 158786)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 469, Bierhorst F68
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: DA 10231
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 75A, Da 9485, DA 7141, DA 10167, Greenwood 75B, DA 10553, Gillespie 4390, DA 9530, DA 9592, Gillespie 3414, DA 10940, DA 10580, DA 1243
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 14758)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 158788)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 158789)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 158790)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 158791)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 158792)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1951) (voucher ID: BISH 158793)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448538)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 431-432)
Voucher cited: Milne 38
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 11019 (BISH), St. John 14560 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7391 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9503 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 543351)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601902)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000481)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8815)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 1263 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1963) (voucher ID: PTBG 13239)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.A. Pancher s.n. (PAP), D.E. Jardin 135 (PAP), J. Florence 6682 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 541063)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 542237)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7248 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 698402)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 179)
Voucher cited: Grant 5049
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 49)
Rare
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 179)
Voucher cited: Grant 4693
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 179)
Vouchers cited: Moore 665, BRY 26592
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6094 (PAP), J. Florence 9177 (PAP), N. Hallé 7097 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 545512)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 261-264)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 417-418)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3918 (GUAM), Stone 4685 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 571339)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23920)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 903)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 903)
East Maui
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 903)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art probably introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Montrouzier 23 (MPU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou probably introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Thiébaut s.n.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré probably introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 99)
Vouchers cited: Eloin s.n., Däniker 1598b
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 98)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre probably introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 99)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n. s.loc., Balansa 1768, Delacour s.n., MacKee 4593, MacKee 12721, MacKee 25532
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 118)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170343, CHR 170344
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10048 (BISH)
"A frequent weed in clearings and waste areas".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1282)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 437892)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1970) (voucher ID: BISH 652883)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 521)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 520)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10173)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 165)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 361)
Common weed.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 47)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 124)
Mostly at low altitudes, but occurring to 1500 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 36-37)
In open waste places, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100399)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 158808)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 158809)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417866)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28593)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28604)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 158803)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 158807)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417873)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 29206)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 158785)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 158784)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 98)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 116)
ssp. sinuata
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 158798)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Atata Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41292)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Parks 16062
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 182-183)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15434
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 158794)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 158797)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Fafa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41293)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 29, Soakai 182, Soakai 442, Soakai 463
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 182-183)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15136
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 18838)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 158795)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 158796)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 698403)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3323)
Taxon name on voucher: Urena lobata
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 69)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Harvey s.n., Crosby 6
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 182-183)
Cited: Harvey, Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 28)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 98)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 374)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, scrub, roadsides; 500-2200 m.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 100)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 374)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 374)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 89)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, scrub, roadsides; 500-2200 m.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 374)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 18)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 374)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Todd 2650
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  On the State of Hawai‘i noxious weed list and a problem and a declared noxious weed in Fiji.  Not a particular problem in Micronesia.

Control:  Unknown.  Some members of this family are tolerant of hormone-type herbicides.  Probably would require integrated mechanical and chemical treatment"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 DEC 2010.