Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Typha latifolia
L., Typhaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 26 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: kuan ye xiang pu

English: broad-leaf cattail, cattail, common cattail, Cooper's reed, giant reed-mace, great cattail, soft flag

French: roseau des étangs

Spanish: espadaña común, piriope, totora, tule espidilla

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description:  "Plants usually coarse and stout; stems 1-3 m long.  Leaves 12-16 per vegetative stem, pale green, nearly flat, 8-20 mm wide, sheath open to base, the scarious upper margins tapering or rarely truncate.  Staminate and pistillate spikes contiguous or occasionally separated by an interval up to 2.5 cm long; staminate spikes pale brown, the flowers with simple hairs, stamens on branched filaments, pollen yellow or occasionally orange, in tetrads; pistillate spikes dark brown, 10-18 cm long, 1.5-3 cm in diameter, flowers without scales or hairs, on slender, often hair-like, compound pedicels 1-2 mm long.  Fruit ellipsoid, (0.9-) 1.2-1.5 (-1.6) mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1614).

Habitat/ecology:  "Freshwater wetlands, marshes, riparian habitats, coastal estuaries.  This plant grows vigorously in shallow waters and forms dense monospecific stands that reduce species richness and eliminate native vegetation.  Such stands impede the water flow and increase bank erosion and siltation.  Through anaerobic decay of excess plant material the water may become polluted"  (Weber, 2003; p. 443).

In Hawai‘i, "sparingly naturalized in low elevation, marshy sites"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1614).

Propagation:  Seed and rhizomes.  "Seeds are dispersed by water and remain viable for long periods of time.  Newly established plants spread rapidly by rhizome growth and expand laterally"  (Weber, 2003; p. 443).

Native range:  "Eurasia, northern Africa, and North America" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1614).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: C. Imada & R. Englund 2001-13 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1614)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1614)
Voucher cited: Liu s.n. (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 372-373)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Northern China.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 372-373)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 88)
Cultivated only
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Hand pulling is practicable for scattered plants and small infestations.  Mechanical cutting below the water line plroved to be effective in killing the plant, the best time is at the end of flowering".

Chemical:  "A number of herbicides are used for chemical control, e.g. glyphosate, amitrole, dalapon, 2,4-D or TCA.  Success depends on time of application and density of infestations"  (Weber, 2003; p. 443).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 22 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 26 JUN 2009.