Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Turnera ulmifolia
L., Passifloraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Cuban buttercup, Marilopez, ramgoat dashalong, sage rose, West Indian holly, yellow alder, yellow bells

I-Kiribati: te kaikainea, te kaikainea, te kaikainea, te kaikainea

Marshallese: nõr in jiboñ, nor in jiboñ

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Aromatic perennial herbs or shrubs 4-15 dm tall, densely strigose.  Leaves clustered toward the tips of the branches, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 4-13 cm long, 2-3 (-5) cm wide, moderately to occasionally sparsely strigillose, margins doubly serrate, petioles 0.8-1.5 cm long, stipules erect, triangular, ca 1.5 mm long.  Calyx ca 20 mm long, the tube 5-8 mm long, the lobes lanceolate, apex caudate; petals yellow, sometimes with a brown spot toward base, obovate, 20-35 mm long; ovary ovoid, with 6 small apical tubercles.  Capsules ovoid, 7-8 mm long.  Seeds narrowly obovoid, slightly curved, ca 2.5 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1295-1296).

"Herbacée pérenne à base ligneuse ou arbrisseau de 20 cm à 1,5 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses petites feuilles à marge dentée regroupées au sommet des tiges et à ses grandes fleurs à 5 pétales de couleur jaune vif"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 39).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed areas, 30-190 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1295-1296).  In Fiji, "naturalized and locally abundant especially in coconut plantations near sea level"  (Smith, 1981; p. 663). In New Caledonia, "envahissant à Thio" (MacKee, 1994; p. 135). In Indonesia, "in sunny dry localities, 1-20 m, especially in the coastal regions: grassy fields, wate places, under coconuts, often on sandy soil, light jungles, as a rule in scattered specimens" (Van Steenis, 1948; pp. 237-238).

Propagation:  Seed. Seeds reported to be carried by ants (Staples et al, 2000; p. 30).

Native range:  Florida, the West Indies and Tropical America; widely planted as an ornamental and naturalized in the tropics.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 39, 43)
"Nous l’avons vu également communément plantée comme ornementale dans les jardins de Hanga Roa" (Meyer, 2008; p. 39).
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 25)
Naturalized at Walung.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 138)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4250 (NY, PTBG, BISH), F. Sohl 84 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 38742)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Voucher cited: DA 2993
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 961
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Naitamba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Voucher cited: DA 11799
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Naitamba Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 14704)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Vouchers cited: DA 5714, DA 8904, DA 11514, DA 9109, DA 9623
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 14703)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 14705)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Vouchers cited: Krauss 1023, Degener & Ordonez 14193, DA 8818, DA 13955
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 14702)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 185047)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 185048)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
Vouchers cited: DA 10220, Garnock-jones 1115
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420632)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H80107 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1295-1296)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 18)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H50111 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H50112 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H60133 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer & Hansen H80301 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H110110 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1295-1296)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 663)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 151)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2007) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: D. Frohlich s.n. (BISH 725947)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-148 (BISH 697760)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697760)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-54 (BISH 697669)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697669)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-102 (BISH 697717)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697717)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher specimens collected: Imada 2003-25 (BISH 697640); Imada 2003-30 (BISH 697645)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697640)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697645)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 12)
"Common; decorative around many houses, some escaping into the wilds".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 103)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 12)
"Common; decorative around houses, some plants becoming ruderal, even escaping into forest areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 129)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A22)
Occasional; near homes, escaping into coconut plantations and ruderal areas, some residents complain that once established, cannot be eradicated, Mili, Bar, Nallo. Voucher 0724201006 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0516200908
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49778)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Potential invader".
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 135)
Voucher cited: Suprin in Veillon 6294 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 135)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45911
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Potential invader".
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 383)
Envahissant à Thio.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 135)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 41650, MacKee 43038
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 87)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649710)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 7, 13)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 12, 38)
Cette plante ornementale à grandes fleurs jaune d’or est localement naturalisée en bordure de route et de piste.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 371)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
van Steenis, C. G. G. J. et al (1948) (p. 4:238)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
van Steenis, C. G. G. J. et al (1948) (p. 4:238)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 88)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 130)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 154)
Var. elegans Urb. "Recorded by Willis and Gardiner (1931)".
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (pp. 30, 35)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38066)
Taxon name on voucher: Turnera ulmifolia L.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 12)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 27)
"Common generally especially along lagoon shore". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36849 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 139)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 7291 (US), Stoddart 7296 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 183)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2854 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 155)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3068 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52035 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 927 (EA), Gwynne & Wood 950 (EA), Gwynne & Wood 961 (EA), Stoddart 7213 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2654
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 195)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 163)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3046 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2355 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
St. Joseph Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7180 (US)

Comments:  See also Turnera subulata.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 APR 2009.