Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Triumfetta semitriloba
Jacq., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: dadangsi, masiksik lahe

Chinese: fei dao ci shuo ma

English: black bush, burweed, Sacramento bur, Sacromento burbark, triumfetta

French: cousin-petit, mahot-cousinrouge, petit mahot-cousin, tête à nègre

Spanish: cadillo de perro, pegadillo

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Perennial herbs or subshrubs to ca 5-20 dm tall; stems erect, younger ones densely stellate pubescent, glabrate with age.  Leaves variable in shape, usually broadly ovate to lanceolate, 4-20 cm long, 3.5-8 cm wide, usually slightly 3-lobed, 3-nerved from base, stellate pubescent, more densely so on lower surface, margins irregularly serrate-dentate, apex acuminate, base very broadly cuneate to truncate, rarely subcordate, petioles 1.5-6 cm long.  Sepals linear, 4-7 mm long, apex with a filiform subapical appendage; petals yellow, narrowly oblanceolate, 3.5-6.5 mm long; stamens 15-20.  Capsules globose, indehiscent, 4-5 mm in diameter, puberulent, glabrate with age, covered with retrorsely setose, hooked bristles"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1294).

"An erect shrub to 1.5 m tall; leaves ovate-oblong, 3-lobed; serrate; flowers small yellow axillary clustered; fruits with scattered reflexed hairs on the hooked spines"  (Stone, 1970; p. 406).

Similar to T. rhomboidea except with longer, hairy spines (Whistler, 1983; p. 69).

Habitat/ecology:  "Burweed grows in pinelands and hammocks in Florida (Long and Lakela 1976) and in roadsides, neglected pastures, and wastelands in Puerto Rico. It grows in sand to clay soils with pH values from about 5.5 to 8.0. In Puerto Rico, burweed grows from near sea level to about 700 m in elevation. This diverse habitat receives annual precipitation from about 900 to 2200 mm. In Hawaii, it grows from sea level to 1,067 m in elevation in areas with annual rainfalls of 760 to 1500 mm (Haselwood and Motter 1966). The species needs disturbance for establishment. If given an equal start, it competes well with other herbs, grasses, and shrubs in full sun or partial shade. Burweed may be found growing in small patches and as single, dispersed plants"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).  "Prevents the establishment of native species in disturbed forest sites.  Burs a nuisance to man and beast in pastures and forests"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and often common in dry, disturbed sites, 30-860 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1294). Arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 131).

Propagation:  Burs that stick to clothing and fur.

Native range:  Tropical America, but now a pan-tropical weed.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)
"It was thought that burweed had been recently introduced to Rapa Nui (Easter Island), but fossil pollen indicates that it has been present for at least 35,000 years" (National Geographic Society 2001, cited in Francis, 2009).
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) probably introduced
abo. intro.
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 78)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 32)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31419 (US, BISH, Fo), Falanruw 2190 (US), Falanruw 1879 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 659383)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 23921)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 32)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31726 (US), Falanruw 1894 (US), Fosberg 31700 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 59)
Vouchers cited: CBM-BS-58874, CBM-BS-59208
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 659382)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Anderson 609 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 659384)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 110)
Naturalized
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 406)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3904 (GUAM), Stone 3920 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 184923)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 184924)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 184925)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 659381)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1293-1294)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1293-1294)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1293-1294)
Voucher cited: Forbes s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Hughes 1137 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1293-1294)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 159)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1909) (voucher ID: BISH 184958)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 370)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 31)
In dry thickets at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28645)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 63)
Voucher: Flynn 6908 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 230)
Taxon name on voucher: Triumfetta semitriloba
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, wastelands.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)

Comments:  On State of Hawai‘i noxious species list.

Control: 

Physical:  "Burs stick to clothing and fur, so sanitation measures and control before Sacramento bur sets seed are critical to prevent its spread"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical: "Sensitive to foliar drizzle applications of triclopyr and of glyphosate.  On Koai‘e trail, Waimea Canyon, Kaua‘i, initially suppressed by application of mixture of triclopyr and glyphosate, each at 1 lb/acre; subsequently emerging seedlings by half that rate"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.