Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Triphasia trifolia
(Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson, Rutaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: lemon China, lemon de china, lemoncito, lemondichina, limon de china, limon-China, limoncito

English: limeberry, orange berry, trifoliate limeberry, triphasia

French: orangine, petite citronelle

Samoan: moli vai atigi lima, moli vai atigi lima, vali atigi lima, vali atigi lima

Yapese: gurugur ni lym

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub; glabrous; spines paired in leaf axils; leaves 3-foliate, the terminal leaflet largest (2-4 cm long); petiolules and petioles short (5 mm or less); flowers 1-3 in axils on peduncles 3-4 mm long; flowers 3-parted, white; stamens 6; ovary 3-locular; locules 1-seeded; fruit ovoid, 1-1.5 cm long, reddish to crimson, 1-3-seeded; flesh mucilaginous" (Stone, 1970; pp. 350-351).

Habitat/ecology:  "Common naturalized shrub of limestone, in undergrowth, sometimes forming dense, spiny thickets" (Stone, 1970; pp. 350-351). In Fiji, "sparingly cultivated near sea level and naturalized in dry waste places on Viti Levu"  (Smith, 1985; p. 514).

Propagation:  Seed, possibly bird-dispersed.

Native range:  Southeast Asia and Malaysia, now widely cultivated and naturalized.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Potential invader".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Moore 402 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38752)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 178691)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 24)
Single plant, voucher cited: Flynn 7217 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 42634)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 178694)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 178695)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 514)
Vouchers cited: DA 11538, H.B.R. Parham 307
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 350-351)
Possibly native.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5820 (BISH, BRI, MEL, GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 23002)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38749)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 38750)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38751)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 178690)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1970) (voucher ID: BISH 443814)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 571344)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 604933)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 29)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: OED 2009080501 (BISH)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 278)
Widly planted.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 338-339)
In the settled areas, in thickets, in some places gregarious and abundant; apparently introduced.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3022)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 116)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
abo. intro.
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 88)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 39)
North Keeling Island
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 5)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 5, 8)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38073)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
"Envahissant".
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 23)

Comments:  Naturalized within limestone forests of Guam. Especially prevalent on forest edges.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2011.