Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Triphasia trifolia
(Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson, Rutaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: lemon China, lemon de china, lemoncito, lemondichina, limon de china, limon-China, limoncito

English: limeberry, orange berry, trifoliate limeberry, triphasia

French: orangine, petite citronelle

Samoan: moli vai atigi lima, moli vai atigi lima, vali atigi lima, vali atigi lima

Yapese: gurugur ni lym

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub; glabrous; spines paired in leaf axils; leaves 3-foliate, the terminal leaflet largest (2-4 cm long); petiolules and petioles short (5 mm or less); flowers 1-3 in axils on peduncles 3-4 mm long; flowers 3-parted, white; stamens 6; ovary 3-locular; locules 1-seeded; fruit ovoid, 1-1.5 cm long, reddish to crimson, 1-3-seeded; flesh mucilaginous" (Stone, 1970; pp. 350-351).

Habitat/ecology:  "Common naturalized shrub of limestone, in undergrowth, sometimes forming dense, spiny thickets" (Stone, 1970; pp. 350-351). In Fiji, "sparingly cultivated near sea level and naturalized in dry waste places on Viti Levu"  (Smith, 1985; p. 514).

Propagation:  Seed, possibly bird-dispersed.

Native range:  Southeast Asia and Malaysia, now widely cultivated and naturalized.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Potential invader".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Moore 402 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38752)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 178691)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 24)
Single plant, voucher cited: Flynn 7217 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 42634)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 178694)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 178695)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 514)
Vouchers cited: DA 11538, H.B.R. Parham 307
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 350-351)
Possibly native.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5820 (BISH, BRI, MEL, GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 23002)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38749)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 38750)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38751)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 178690)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1970) (voucher ID: BISH 443814)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 571344)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 604933)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 29)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: OED 2009080501 (BISH)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 278)
Widly planted.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 338-339)
In the settled areas, in thickets, in some places gregarious and abundant; apparently introduced.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3022)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 116)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
abo. intro.
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 88)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 39)
North Keeling Island
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 5)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 5, 8)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38073)
Taxon name on voucher: Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) Paul G.Wilson
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
"Envahissant".
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 23)

Comments:  Naturalized within limestone forests of Guam. Especially prevalent on forest edges.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Triphasia trifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Triphasia trifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Triphasia trifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 178690 (Nelson, P. 245).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 178695 (Takamatsu, M. 1879).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 38749 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3101).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 38751 (Fosberg, F.R. 25407).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 38752 (Fosberg, F.R. 25059).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 571344 (Fosberg, F.R. 25407).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 178694 (Wong, C.C.Y. 553).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 38750 (Anderson, D. 38).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 178691 (Kondo, Y.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 23002 (Cushing-Falanruw, M.V. 889).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1970. Voucher specimen #BISH 443814 (Roszel, S.J. 20).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 604933 (Stone, B.C.M. 15999).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle. 2012. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2009. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 113:7-26.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG38073(Art Whistler 9801).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. 1991. Trees and shrubs of the northern Mariana Islands. Saipan: Coastal Resources Management Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 96950. 119 pp.

Rivers, Julie. 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipeligo, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific. 16 pp. plus "List of the higher plants of Diego Garcia".

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane. 2000. Invasive plant species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 31 pp.

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers No. 65. 35 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Topp, J. M. W. 1988. An annotated check list of the flora of Diego Garcia, British Ocean Territory. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 313. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 21 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Waterhouse, Barbara. 0. Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2011.