Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Trifolium repens
L., Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Trifolium occidentale Coombe

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bai che zhou cao

English: Dutch clover, ladino clover, ladino white clover, white clover, white Dutch clover

French: trèfle blanc, trèfle rampant

Spanish: trébol, trébol amargo, trébol blanco, trébol rastrero

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs, stoloniferous, glabrous to glabrescent. Stems 10-30 cm, prostrate, rooting at nodes. Leaves long petiolate, palmately 3-foliolate; stipules ovate-lanceolate, membranous, with veins green or red, sheathing at base, apex subulate; petiolule 1-1.5 mm; leaflets obovate to ovate, 6-20 (-40) x 8-16 (-25) mm, lateral veins 13 pairs, prominent on both surfaces, base cuneate, apex emarginate to broadly rounded. Flowers 20-50 (-80), in terminal, globose umbels, 1.5-4 cm; peduncle equal to or longer than petiole; involucre absent; bracts lanceolate-ovate, membranous; pedicels 2-5 mm, reflexed after anthesis. Calyx 3-5 mm, veins 6-10; teeth shorter than tube. Corolla white, rarely pink-tinged, 5-12 mm, fragrant; standard elliptic, ca. 2x wings and keel. Ovary sessile; ovules 3 or 4. Legume linear-oblong. Seeds 2-4, ovoid to reniform"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In China, "cultivated, escaped, and naturalized; grasslands, ravines, roadsides"  (Flora of China online).  In New Zealand, "A wide range of habitats including waste places, pasture, riverbeds, cultivated land, lawns and gardens"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 690).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m. The plant grows in water or it has its roots within a permanent water course, this corresponds to marshes, bogs, water courses, lake and river shores; humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, northern Africa, western and central Asia; widely cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
"Sown and widely naturalised".
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 267)
"Perhaps occasionally naturalized in pastures".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 714)
var. repens. Voucher cited: Rock 3400 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 714)
var. repens
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110704 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 714)
var. repens
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 690)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Australian Capital Territory, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Frequently cultivated, widely naturalized, a common lawn weed".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Frequently cultivated, widely naturalized, a common lawn weed".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 155)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
var. repens and nigricans G. Don
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 690)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
"Found only once on Reunion in 1944; no recent records".
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 15 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 6 APR 2011.