Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Trifolium pratense
L., Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hong che zhou cao

English: mammoth red clover, medium red clover, peavine clover, purple clover, red clover

French: trèfle des pres, trèfle des prés, trèfle rouge, trèfle violet

Spanish: trèbol común, trèbol morado, trèbol rojo, trèbol violeta

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs, sparsely villous or glabrescent. Stems numerous from crown, erect or ascending, 20-70 cm, stout, striate. Leaves palmately 3-foliolate, basal and cauline, long petiolate in lower leaves, shortly petiolate in upper leaves; stipules ovate-lanceolate, membranous, base adnate to petiole, apex acuminate-subulate; leaflets ovate-elliptic or obovate, rarely elliptic, 1.5-3.5 (-5) x 1-2 cm, lateral veins 15, base broadly cuneate, margins obscurely serrulate, apex obtuse, rarely retuse. Flowers 30-70, in dense globose or ovoid, terminal, sessile to shortly pedunculate heads, subtended by involucre of stipules of reduced leaves. Calyx slightly pubescent or glabrous, veins 10; teeth subulate, unequal, lower tooth ca. 2x others. Corolla purple, rarely pink or white, 12-14 (-18) mm; standard spatulate, apex rounded, retuse. Ovary elliptic. Legume ovoid. Seed 1, yellow or brown, ovoid"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in west, open areas such as pastures and lawns, 820-2,070 m (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 714).  In China, "cultivated and naturalized; woodland margins, wet meadows, roadsides"  (Flora of China online).  In New Zealand, "pasture, waste places, gardens, cultivated land"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 690).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, northern Africa, Asia; widely naturalized in temperate regions (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 714)
var. sativum. Voucher cited: Ewart III 232 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 714)
var. sativum
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 690)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Widely cultivated, frequently naturalized".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 690)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 14 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 6 APR 2011.