Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Trifolium dubium
Sibth., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Trifolium minus Sm.; Trifolium parviflorum Bunge ex Nyman

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: dun ye che zhou cao

English: hop clover, lesser trefoil, low hop clover, shamrock, small hop clover, suckling clover, yellow clover, yellow suckling clover

French: trèfle douteux

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herbs, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Stems erect to decumbent, (5-) 10-30 (-40) cm. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules obliquely ovate, 4-8 mm, base rounded, margins finely dentate, apex acute; petiole shorter than or equal to leaflets; terminal petiolule longer than lateral petioles; leaflets obovate, 5-10(-12) x 3-8 mm, veins 6-8 pairs, base cuneate, margins entire proximally, obscurely serrulate distally, apex rounded or emarginate. Flowers 5-15, in axillary heads; peduncle 0.5-3 (-4) cm, pubescent; pedicels less than 1 mm, after flowering pendulous. Calyx ca. 2 mm, veins 5. Corolla pale yellow, turning brown, 3-4 mm; standard narrowly boat-shaped, smooth, apex acute. Legume oblong, 1.5-2 mm, shortly beaked; stipe ca. 1 mm. Seed 1, pale brown, globose"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in pastures, along streambanks and roadsides, also in subalpine shrubland, 910-2,200 m"  (Wagner et al.,  1999; p. 712).  In New Zealand, "growing in a wide range of habitats, especially waste places, pasture, lawns, gardens, and cultivated land"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 685).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, northern Africa, western Asia; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
"Naturalised in waste places, pastures, etc.".
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
"Naturalised in waste places, pastures, etc.".
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 712)
Voucher cited: Forbes 713.H (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: T. Flynn & S. Perlman 3899 (BISH, PTBG, US), T. Flynn et al. 3259 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 712)
East Maui
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 685)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Australian Capital Territory, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"A common lawn weed".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"A common lawn weed".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated, escaped, and naturalized. Jiangsu, Shaanxi.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 685)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated, escaped, and naturalized.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 14 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 8 MAR 2011.