Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Trianthema portulacastrum
L., Aizoaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia hai ma chi

English: black pig weed, desert horse-purslane, giant pig weed, horse purslane

Spanish: verdolaga, verdolaga blanca, verdolaga de cochi, verdolaga de hoja ancha

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems prostrate or ascending, somewhat succulent, up to 5 dm long, sometimes more, glabrous or sparsely pubescent.  Leaves flat, elliptic to obovate or spatulate, 1-2 (-4) cm long, 0.4-2 (-3) cm wide, margins entire, apex obtuse or retuse, base rounded to cuneate, petioles 0.5-2.5 cm long, expanded into a sheath connate with opposing leaf base to form a cup.  Flowers solitary, sessile, largely hidden in leaf axils; sepals adnate to leaf base, the lobes linear to narrowly deltate, 4-5  mm long, inner surface pink or white, sparsely pubescent externally; ovary cylindrical; style ca. 2 mm long.  Operculum truncate, 2-3 mm long, with a prominent raised, denticulate rim along outer side.  Seeds dull black, reniform, 1.5-2 mm wide, weakly ridged." (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 179, 1856).

Habitat/ecology:  "Found in tropical and subtropical countries.  It occurs in wastelands, roadsides, lawns, gardens, upland cultivated crops, and in paddy fields if the water supply is low.  Occasionally it is found in perennial crops and pastures, especially in subhumid and semiarid regions"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 856).

In Papua New Guinea, "found as a foreshore plant and in dry streambeds; a weed of cultivation and pasture; reported to be poisonous. Widespread at low altitudes, mostly in regions of low seasonal rainfall" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 50).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Pantropical (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 179).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Gardner por Espaņola Islet, Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Oeste Islet, Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Osborn Islet, Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Genovesa Group
Genovesa Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinzón Group
Pinzón Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Baltra Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Daphne Mayor Island, Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Punta Bowditch Este Islet, Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Punta Bowditch Norte Islet, Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Punta Bowditch Sur Islet, Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Seymour Norte Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Venecia Islet, Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Fé Group
Noreste de Santa Fé Islet, Santa Fé Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Fé Group
Santa Fé Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Mao Islet, Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2006) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Lorence 9168 (BISH, BR, MO, NY, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1996) (p. 9)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Hobdy 3543 (BISH, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 179)
Voucher cited: Shegeta s.n. (BISH)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 50)
Widespread at low altitudes, mostly in regions of low seasonal rainfall.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 136)
A weed of cultivation throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, locally abundant in recently distributed soil.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 854)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 854)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 854)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 366)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 13 APR 2005 and was last updated on 21 JUN 2010.