Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Trema orientalis
(L.) Blume, Cannabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Trema cannabina Lour.; Trema cannabinum Lour.; Trema orientale (L.) Blume; Trema tomentosum (Roxb.) H. Hara

Common name(s): [more details]

Carolinian: tal amama

Chamorro: agaunai, banahl

Chinese: yi se shan huang ma

English: charcoal tree, gunpowder tree, poison peach

Fijian: matadra, ndrikanaithembe, ndrou, ndroundrou

Kwara‘ae: bulasisi, fifikulu

Nangu: ngadaenango

Niuean: māgele, magele, mangele

Other: guyarci, hai-art-se, nendog

Palauan: elodechoel, golodogoiel

Samoan: avaava aitu, magele, māgele, mangele, mangele

Tahitian: aere

Tongan: māgele, mangele

Wallisian: māgele

Yapese: uanin, wunin

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees to 3-36 m tall, ± buttressed, densely pubescent with appressed to erect, silvery, glaucous, or grayish hairs and short, multicellular, glandular hairs.  Leaves distichous, thin to thick, coriaceous, often rigid and brittle, ovate to narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 6-19 cm long, 1.5-7 (-10) cm wide, upper surface sparsely to strongly scabrid with pustulate-based hairs, lower surface densely tomentose with silvery, appressed, unicellular hairs and shorter, multicellular, glandular hairs, margins serrate to denticulate, apex acute to acuminate-caudate, base asymmetrical, cordate, rounded, or occasionally truncate, petioles 0.7-1.8 cm long, stipules linear-lanceolate, ca. 5-7 mm long.  Flowers of different sexes borne on separate branches in a branched panicle or thyrse, bracts ovate, 2-3 mm long; sepals 5; staminate flowers 20-100, in inflorescences up to 2.5-5 cm long, sepals ca. 1.5-2 mm long, pistillode present; pistillate flowers 5-15, in inflorescences 1-2.5 cm long, sepals ca. 1-1.5 mm long, staminodes absent.  Drupes black at maturity, 3-5 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999, pp. 1296-1297).

Smith (1981, p. 160) discusses the possible differences between T. orientalis and T. cannabina [cannabinum] and concludes that "it is my present opinion that the weedy and aggressive species established in the Fijian Region (New Hebrides, Fiji, Tonga, Niue, Samoa, and the Horne Islands) is best referred to a single species".

Wagner et al. (1999, pp. 1296-1297) discuss the possible differences between T. orientalis and T. tomentosa and conclude that "since these entities are exceedingly similar and may represent forms of one species, we have treated them together here using the older name, T. orientalis."

Thus, until better information is available, all of these are included here as T. orientalis.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed mesic forest and diverse mesic forest, 30 to 800 m" (Wagner et al., 1999, pp. 1296-1297). In Tonga, "frequent in thickets" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 96).

Propagation:  Bird-dispersed seed.

Native range:  Asia and Pacific islands.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 35)
Abundant. Voucher cited: Yuncker 9461 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 185290)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 35)
Abundant. Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9046 (BISH), Garber 670 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 185284)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 185289)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 38853)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 162)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 185285)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1920) (voucher ID: BISH 185288)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 185292)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430161)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31602 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 660404)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 185350)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1940 (US), Fosberg 31669 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 660405)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1625
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58813
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 667774)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31602 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 659897)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 667698)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 25)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1818 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58929, CBM-BS-58945
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 660403)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 660407)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Varieties argentea (Pl.) Laut. and viridis Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Moore 3045 (US), Fosberg 31371 (US), Anderson 530 (US), Bonham 12 (US); var. viridis Voucher cited: Moore 332 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58998
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 637061)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 659898)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 660406)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000083)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Varieties argentea (Pl.) Laut. and viridis Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 185351)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Varieties argentea (Pl.) Laut. and viridis Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 185348)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 185349)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 660408)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 660409)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 660414)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1758 (US), Evans 2386 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L, P), Evans 2352 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L, TI)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58887
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660410)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660411)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 660413)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island native
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Near the top of Rangimotia on Mangaia in one gully per Bill Sykes, pers. com.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 665681)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 185355)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 185358)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina var. scabra (Bl.) deWit
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 500831)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina var. scabra (Bl.) deWit
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 185269)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Vouchers cited: Bryan 506
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 185270)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 185271)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Voucher cited: DA 11927 (DF 7)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Vouchers cited: Seemann 563, Garnock-Jones 826
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Voucher cited: Smith 1315
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Nairai Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Voucher cited: Milne 168
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Naitamba Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Voucher cited: Tothill 761
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618858)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618859)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618867)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Vouchers cited: Harvey s.n.,, Smith 6713, DA 12941, DA 12864, Greenwood 472
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Vouchers cited: Smith 1405, Garnock-Jones 1079
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420630)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 159-160)
As T. canabina. Vouchers cited: Smith 9355, Meebold 16760, DF 443, Bola 138
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 185275)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 448878)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 246)
Var. viridis Lauterbach. Native but uncommon. Voucher cited: Moore 299
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Varieties argentea (Pl.) Laut. and viridis Laut.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 655712)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina var. scabra (Bl.) deWit
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1296-1297)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1296-1297)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1296-1297)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1296-1297)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1296-1297)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1296-1297)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands native
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 254)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 446650)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Niue
Niue
Niue Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 46)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 10231 (BISH), Yuncker 10223 (BISH), Yuncker 10230 (BISH). Sykes (1970) states that this species could not be found in 1965 and is possibly extinct on the island.
"Occasional in thickets. The fruit is eaten by birds".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 185357)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 595723)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina var. scabra (Bl.) deWit
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649784)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina var. scabra (Bl.) deWit
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 655714)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 688737)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argenteus (Planch.) Lauterb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 688849)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 689495)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1427)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argentea (Pl.) Laut.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3013)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Bl.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26573)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. argentea
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 25486)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438298)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 655715)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina var. scabra (Bl.) deWit
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 51-52)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 660586)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 699201)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina var. scabra (Bl.) deWit
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 131)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 61)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 34)
At low and medium altitudes, in places ascending to an altitude of 2,000 m; usually abundant.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island native
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100417)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 185286)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 185287)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 609003)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island native
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28831)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 185283)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 185291)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 185253)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 185254)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 185256)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 79843)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 115)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘afeva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640315)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15762, Yuncker 15837, Buelow 308, Buelow 379
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15938, Buelow 560
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 96-97)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15938
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 185281)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 639482)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 96-97)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15762
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 699202)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 96-97)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15837
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 185282)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited Scarth-Johnson68, Scarth-Johnson 164
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 651849)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1000867)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 256)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 96-97)
"Frequent in thickets throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Parks 16058!, Yuncker 15604, Hotta 5550, Soakai 991 (EI), Sykes 256, Sykes 304, Sykes 662
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 96-97)
Voucher cited: Yuncher 15604
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 185279)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 185280)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema orientalis var. viridis Lauterb.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Graeffe (n.s.), Moseley (n.s.), Setchell & Parks 15312, Yuncker 15252, Soakai 715, Buelow 5
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 351)
Trema cannabina Lour.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Hotta 4447, Buelow & Sykes 66, Buelow & Sykes 247
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Buelow 1936, Whistler 6309
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 637, Buelow 1138, Whistler 6193
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 96-97)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 637
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: (Whistler, n.s.)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Barclay s.n., Harvey s.n., Crosby 168
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 185261)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 185262)
Taxon name on voucher: Trema cannabina Lour.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Grows on sand dunes near mangrove swamps, in marginal rainforest and in alluvial soils in rainforest".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Grows on sand dunes near mangrove swamps, in marginal rainforest and in alluvial soils in rainforest".
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Moist forests, dry scrub of open slopes; 400-1900 m".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 58)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 5)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)

Comments:  Not causing problems where it is native. Need to confirm its absence on Pohnpei and Kosrae (Federated States of Micronesia). Should not be introduced where not native.

Reported to be moderately invasive in the Solomon Islands (Wairiu and Wagatora, 2002)

Control: 

Physical:  "Cattle relish the leaves of gunpowder trees (Sam Taka, rancher)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical: "Sensitive to cut-surface applications (to drilled holes) of hormone-type herbicides and glyphosate.  HAVO staff reported control with triclopyr amine at 10% product in water applied to cut stumps (Chris Zimmer, HAVO).  Also sensitive to basal bark, frill, and cut-stump applications of triclopyr"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 29 JAN 2013.