Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Toxicodendron succedaneum
(L.) Kuntze, Anacardiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk; score: 12 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Toxicodendron succedaneum)

Other Latin names:  Rhus succedanea L.; Toxicodendron succedanea (L.) Mold.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Japanese wax, Japanese lacquer tree, Japanese tallow tree, Japanese wax tree, Japanese waxtree, poison ivy, poison sumac, red-lac, rhus, rhus tree, rhustree, scarlet rhus, sumac, sumac wax tree, varnish tree, wax tree, waxtree

Unknown: wasboom

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze (Anacardiaceae) "is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree growing 2-8 m high with brightly coloured autumn foliage. The branchlets are hairless. The bright green leaves are alternate and consist of 9-15 leaflets, which change to scarlet and crimson in autumn. The lance to egg shaped leaflets are opposite and range between 5-10 cm long and 2-3 cm wide. The leaflet margins are smooth and both surfaces are hairless. The lower surface can be somewhat greyish. The overall length of the leaf ranges from 10-30 cm long. The leaf stalk ranges from 3-10 cm long. The flowers are creamy-white to yellowish-green and are clustered into branched flowering heads (panicles) which are 8-15 cm long and hairless. The pale brown fruits are round to egg shaped and compressed laterally, 6-10 mm long, 7-11 mm wide, with a hard stone in the centre (Parsons & Cuthbertson 2001; Taylor 2007)." (Weeds in Australia)

Habitat/ecology:  Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze (Anacardiaceae) "grows mainly in temperate regions on a wide range of soils. It is found along roadsides, waste place and is usually found in disturbed areas in woodland." "Plants are spread by seed which is ingested by birds and other animals." (Weeds in Australia)

"Growth calendar: Rhus [PIER ed.: Toxicodendron succedaneum] seeds germinate in spring producing a single erect stem and fibrous roots. Short rhizomes form on the basal portions of the stem towards the end of summer. Seedlings are dormant during winter. Flower buds do not develop until late summer of the second growth season. Flowering does not occur until the following spring when the new season's leaves are fully expanded. Fruit matures in autumn and often remains on the plant over winter (Parsons & Cuthbertson 2001)." (Weeds in Australia)

Propagation:  In Australia (where it cultivated and is also a weed in certain places), "Rhus seeds germinate in spring producing a single erect stem and fibrous roots. Short rhizomes form on the basal portions of the stem towards the end of summer." "Dispersal of Rhus has principally been through commercial nurseries and subsequently by seed which is readily eaten by birds and other animals (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001). Rhus can be spread by movement of garden soil containing seed and, as seed remains viable for many years, care should be taken when using soil previously associated with a rhus tree (Monaghan & McMaugh 2002)." (Weeds in Australia)

Native range:  The native range of Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze (Anacardiaceae) includes parts of temperate Asia (China, Japan [including the Ryukyu Islands], Korea, Taiwan) and parts of tropical Asia (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia [Sumatra]). (GRIN)

"Native to the Indian Sub-continent (i.e. Bhutan, Nepal, northern India and northern Pakistan) and eastern Asia (i.e. China, Japan, Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and western Indonesia)." (Weeds of Australia)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Asia
Asia
Bhutan native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Asia
Asia
Himalayas native
Australian Government (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Asia
Asia
Laos native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Asia
Asia
Myanmar native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Asia
Asia
Nepal native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Asia
Asia
Pakistan native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Asia
Asia (Pacific rim)
Bangladesh native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Asia
Asia (Pacific rim)
Korea native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Government (year unknown)
"commonly cultivated in southern Australia, especially around Sydney and Melbourne"; "Rhus is currently only known to occur as a weed in the Central Coast of New South Wales around Sydney (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001; Monaghan & McMaugh 2002)."; accessed 20180207
Australia
Australia (continental)
Victoria (Australia) introduced
cultivated
Australian Government (year unknown)
"commonly cultivated in southern Australia, especially around Sydney and Melbourne"; accessed 20180207
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Australian Government (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Indonesia
Sunda Islands
Sumatra native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
Australian Government (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
India
India
India (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180207

Comments:  Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze (Anacardiaceae) is reportedly cultivated and is used as an ornamental plant. (GRIN)

Toxicodendron succedaneum is "known to occur as a weed in the Central Coast of New South Wales around Sydney (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001; Monaghan & McMaugh 2002)." (Weeds in Australia)

Toxicodendron succedaneum "is commonly cultivated in southern Australia especially around Sydney and Melbourne (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001)." (Weeds in Australia)

Control:  In Australia, "Mechanical removal of Rhus [PIER ed.: Toxicodendron succedaneum] is the main method of control (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001). Wear protective clothing at all times. Preferably undertake removal in the winter months when the leaves have been shed to minimise toxicity then grub the trees, making sure most of the root system is removed so as to minimise suckering." (The sap of Toxicodendron succedaneum "causes severe dermatitis in humans and all parts of the plant are toxic (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001).") "Do not burn Rhus as the allergen is especially harmful as an airborne oil (Parson & Cuthbertson 2001). ¶Some New South Wales local councils also recommend chemical control (for example, Willoughby City Council 2006, Campbelltown City Council 2007)." (Weeds in Australia)

"Manual control. Young plants are easily hand-pulled ¶Herbicide control. Medium sized Rhus Trees [PIER ed.: Toxicodendron succedaneum] (to 2m tall) can be cut at ground level and immediately painted with a registered herbicide (cut and paint). Larger individuals are best treated by stem injection." For further information, "General information on control methods for this weed can be found in the most recent edition of the annual Noxious and Environmental Weed Control Handbook www.dpi.nsw.gov.au or at www.sydneyweeds.org.au" (Willoughby City Council)


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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 31 OCT 2018.