Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Toona ciliata
M.Roem., Meliaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cedrela australis F. v. Muell.; Cedrela toona Roxb. ex Rottl. & Willd.; Toona australis (F. v. Muell.) Harms

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hong chun

English: Australian red cedar, Indian mahogany, red cedar, Suren mahogany, toon

Samoan: tuna

Tongan: sita kula

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Fast-growing trees to ca. 20-30 m tall.  Leaves usually 3-6 dm long, leaflets 10-14 (-18), narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 4.5-16 cm long, glabrous or at least sparsely pubescent, apex acute to caudate, base inequilateral.  Calyx lobes ca. 1 mm long; petals white, ca. 5-6 mm long, margins ciliate; nectary disk pubescent; staminal filaments ca. 2 mm long, staminodes absent; ovary and style glabrous.  Capsules reddish brown, with some lighter spots, ellipsoid, 2-2.8 cm long.  Seeds brown, thin, dry, the embryo portion ca. 1-2 mm long with 2 wings, the longer one ca. 5-15 mm long, the other ca. half as long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 920, 1885).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest gaps, riparian habitats.  A fast growing, light-demanding, early successional pioneer tree that spreads rapidly in disturbed forests and cleared areas.  The tree is shade intolerant and becomes persistent once established.  Little is know on the ecology of this tree as an invasive species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 434).

In Hawai‘i, "extensively planted, primarily in forestry areas, and now at least sparingly naturalized in mesic to wet, disturbed habitats, 25-610 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 920).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seed.

Native range:  India, southeastern Asia, and Queensland and New South Wales, Australia; cultivated elsewhere as a fast-growing timber tree (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 920).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 89)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 112)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. australis (F.J. Mueller) A.C. de Candolle
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. australis (F.J. Mueller) A.C. de Candolle. Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11174 (PAP)
"Planté rarement, tend à se naturaliser".
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 920, 1885)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 920, 1885)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 920, 1885)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 920, 1885)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H110620 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 920, 1885)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 101)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 47)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 81)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 357)
In primary forests at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 115)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 64)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 57)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 920)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 920)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 434)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
Henderson, Lesley (1995)

Comments:  Often introduced as a forestry tree. Should be closely monitored for naturalization.

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.

Chemical:  Cut larger trees and treat the stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 434).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 26 DEC 2011.