Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Timonius timon
(Spreng.) Merr., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: liberal

Kwara‘ae: sakosia

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Shrub or small tree, to 8 m, stems spreading to subappressed or appressed villous, or even silky, internodes 0.5-10 cm long, terete or, when short, somewhat squarish, when young with 4 slightly longitudinal ridges; leaves to 15 x 5 cm, somewhat obovate to elliptic, apex acuminate to prominently so, tip blunt, base contracted, acute or very slightly decurrent, thin, slightly appressed villous on upper side of midrib, slightly or more so beneath, sometimes with tufts of hair in vein axils, main veins 5 to 8 on a side, petioles 1-1.5 cm long, slightly sericeous to villous; stipules linear-lanceolate attenuate, 1-4 cm long, sheathing terminal bud, caducous from about second node, silky-villous without, glabrous within, staminate cymes 1.5-3 cm long, sericeous, pedunculate, few-flowered, compact, only buds seen, corolla in bud, calyx lobes 5, unequal, apices blunt; pistillate flowers solitary or very rarely 2-3 on axillary peduncles, bracts at summit minute, caducous or absent, hypanthium and calyx not much swollen at anthesis, thinly sericeous, lobes slightly unequal, erect, ovate to oblong from an erect collar, corolla sericous without, tube about 5 mm long, lobes 7, 2.5 mm long, erect to spreading, glabrous within; fruit globose, 15 mm in diameter, crowned by remains of calyx, pyrenes in vertical rows, about 2 mm long, dorsiventrally somewhat compressed" (Fosberg et al., 1993; p. 130).

Habitat/ecology:  In Australia, in coastal districts and offshore islands of Queensland, often near beaches but not restricted to them, and always in sheltered areas, e.g. in eucalypt forest or littoral forests (Stanley & Ross, 1986; vol. 2, p. 335).

"Widespread on Angaur and Peleliu.  Individual trees and small stands were found on a number of the Rock Islands.  It was probably introduced to Angaur and Peleliu during or shortly after World War II and has since spread to the Rock Islands.  It is an invader of open, disturbed areas.  As time goes by, it seems to be overtopped and replaced by native species.  Its presence in the Rock Islands indicates that it is spreading to the north and, unless checked, will probably eventually reach Koror and Babeldaob, where it is also likely to be invasive. Single trees (possibly planted) were observed on Kayangel and Ngerkebesang, so it may already be more widespread than our observations suggest."  (Space et al., 2003)

Propagation:  Small fruit contains many seeds. Local people say it's eaten and spread by fruit bats. May also be spread by birds.

Native range:  Timor and the Moluccas, northern Australia, New Guinea, Solomon Islands.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
cultivated
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref states "Cultivated"
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 279)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Canfield, Joan E. (1980) (p. 200)
Vouchers cited: Otobed P-10119 (US), Fosberg 47638 (US), Fosberg 47639 (US), Fosberg 47640 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 5, 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 438283)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 438284)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1377)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spr.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1374)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spr.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1376)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spr.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1373)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spr.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1375)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spr.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 5, 13)
Planted trees and a small reproducing population. Voucher: Lorence 9902 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 195)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merrill
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 89)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 13)
Carp Resort. Voucher: Lorence 9856 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 149)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon Val.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 279)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Canfield, Joan E. (1980) (p. 200)
Vouchers cited: Canfield 177 (US), Canfield 408 (US), Canfield 695 (US), Canfield 701 (US), Canfield 752 (US), Canfield 753 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 5, 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 427440)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 427441)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 427442)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 661196)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2005) (voucher ID: BNM 993)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spr.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10119)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spr.) Merr.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Bkul a Chesemiich Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Bkul a Chesemiich Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 7, 13)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngchelobel Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngchelobel Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 7, 13)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 92)
Neco
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 7, 13)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 7, 13)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 56)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 14175)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Malaita Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 178105)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Malaita Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 1002269)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 178102)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Santa Isabel (Bughotu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 178101)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon (Spreng.) Merr.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Whitmore, T. C. (1969) (p. 261)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 114)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 30339)
Taxon name on voucher: Timonius timon

Comments:  May have been introduced by military operations on Peleliu and Angaur during World War II, where it is now widespread.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 26 OCT 2006.