Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Thunbergia laurifolia
Lindl., Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Thunbergia grandiflora var. laurifolia (Lindley) Benoist; Thunbergia harrisii Hook.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: laurel clock vine, laurel-leaved clockvine, laurel-leaved thunbergia, purple allamanda

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Climbers with ovate-oblong or sublanceolate subentire to slightly crenate leaves, obtuse or subcordate, acute-acuminate, pinnately nerved, glabrous, mostly 7-18 cm long and 2.5-6 cm wide, on petioles up to 6 cm long; bracteoles persistent, 4-5 cm long; calyx truncate; corolla blue-violet to white, tube 3.5-4.5 cm long, limb 6-8 cm broad; capsule up to 1.5 cm wide, the beak to 3 cm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 537).

"Differs from [T.] grandiflora principally in the narrower, 3-7 cm wide, ovate to oblong, rarely lobed but frequently very coarsely repand-serrate leaves, acuminate at apex, usually shorter petioles and more slender, often shorter pedicels, often more congested racemes. 

Habitat/ecology:  Climbing vine. Moist areas at low elevations.

Propagation:  Seeds, cuttings, and fragments of stems and roots. Cultivated as an ornamental and can spread from dumping of garden cuttings.

Native range:  "Apparently native to Malaysia and Myanmar, widely cultivated in the tropics"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 94).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Naturalized on the basalt cliff behind Avarua per Sykes.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 120)
Voucher cited: DA 10402
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: BRY 25407
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36549
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 599735)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 24)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 62923, Grant 4305
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3349 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 62923 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492849)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 537)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 260)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 4)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H70130 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H70136 (BISH, PTBG)
Common and locally abundant.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 175-176)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Starr, Starr, Anderson & Anderson 050623-4 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (1999) (p. 11)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 980507-7 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 175-176)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 289)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 9-10)
Vouchers cited: Guillaumin 8600, Blanchon 1066, MacKee 20618
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 469)
Occasionally planted for ornamental purposes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Kolombagara Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Ringgi
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 523781)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Large patch behind abandoned college.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
"Showing signs of invasion".
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 131)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 338)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 131)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 255)
Ornamental.

Comments:  Present but not particularly invasive in French Polynesia. Some small but serious infestations in Australia, where it is targeted for eradication.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 27 AUG 2009.