Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Thunbergia grandiflora
(Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb., Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Bengal clock vine, Bengal trumpet, blue trumpet vine, large-flowered thunbergia, skyflower

French: liane mauve

Palauan: bung el etiu

Pohnpeian: iolen pengkal

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Climbers with broad cordate 5-7-nerved palmately lobed or merely angled leaves to nearly 20 cm long, almost as broad, pubescent, on petioles 4-12 cm long; flowers in pendent racemes, large and showy; calyx pubescent, truncate; corolla violet or whitish, the tube pale yellow, 3-3.5 cm long, 6-8 cm wide across the limb; ovary on a yellowish disk; seeds smooth on one side, warty on the reverse" (Stone, 1970; p. 537). A white-flowered horticultural variety exists.

Habitat/ecology:  Climbing vine. Can smother individual and groups of trees.  "Enshrouds even tall trees and shrubs.  In agricultural areas it infests roadsides and pastures, forming impenetrable thickets"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  "One of Australia's most critical environmental weeds, due to its capacity to rapidly smother rainforest in the tropical lowlands of coastal, north Queensland.  It is a serious threat to the survival of small remnants of lowland tropical rainforest that have been fragmented by agricultural and urban development.  In some areas, T. grandiflora can establish 100 percent ground cover over several hectares, excluding all native plants.  The plant is not known to support any native wildlife and probably provides a refuge for feral pigs.  The plant has the potential to become established throughout lowland rainforest in the world heritage listed 'wet tropics' region of north Queensland, particularly along river/creek banks, along the edges of rainforest and within small rainforest remnants"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 59-61).

Propagation:  Seeds, cuttings, and fragments of stems and roots. Cultivated as an ornamental and most commonly spread from dumping of garden cuttings. "It grows readily from its tuberous roots that are spread in soil, by water or in garden refuse" (Smith, 2002; p. 53).

Native range:  Asia (northern India).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence 9960 (PTBG)
Invasive species.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mamanuthas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 119)
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 119)
Voucher cited: DA 17192
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 36368)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 119)
Voucher cited: Degener 15493
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 127886)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63539
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Cultivée comme ornementale, se naturalise aisément". Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10513 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 63539 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 599736)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642734)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 644085)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1002073)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: BRY 24799
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Ornementale, se naturalise autour des habitations". Voucher cited: J. Florence 2857 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Ornementale se naturalisant assez facilement". Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11193 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 644119)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6212 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552805)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 537)
Voucher cited: Stone 4270 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 260)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 127890)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 127891)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 127892)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 420296)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 443824)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 505168)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 17)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 980408-130 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
Voucher cited: St. John 18400 (BISH)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 83)
Voucher cited: Hassall 187 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: MacKee 20663
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
cultivated
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref states "Cultivated"
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 89)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 260)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 10, 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 420279)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 420295)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 571578)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 59)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rosse)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 60)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rosse)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Voucher: Lorence 9716 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US, BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 9)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 469)
Commonly planted for ornamental purposes; never observed in fruit.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 114)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 59-61)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 59-61)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 337)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 59-61)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 255)
Ornamental.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 59-61)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 89)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 337)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 86)
Casual
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/±envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (pp. 337, 350)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (pp. 347, 350)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 433)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (pp. 337, 350)

Comments:  A problem species in Australia (a declared noxious weed in Queensland and a prohibited entrant in Western Australia and the Northern Territory) and Singapore (Smith, 2002; p. 53). Very aggressive in Palau (Space et al., 2003).

Control:  The plant forms large underground tubers and is difficult to eradicate because of regeneration from tubers and root and stem fragments (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 59-61). 

Physical:  "Pulling plants and harvesting underground tubers can be effective over time, but is very labor-intensive because all material must be removed or it will re-sprout"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 9).

Chemical: Spraying or painting cut stumps with herbicides such as glyphosate is most effective. "An effective herbicide is imazapyr applied to the foliage during active growth"  (Weber, 2003; p. 433).  "Foliar applications probably impractical because of risk to non-target hosts.  Work needed on treating the foliage and stems on the ground.  Aerial growth may be killed with 2,4-D or or glyphosate but plants resprout from tubers.  In cut-stump treatments, 2,4-D in kerosene with surfactant was effective in Australia.  Triclopyr also appears promising in trials"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"Triclopyr (Garlon 4) or glyphosate (Roundup) can be used as a foliar spray"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 9).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 JAN 2011.