Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Thunbergia alata
Bojer ex Sims, Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: black-eyed Susan vine

French: oeil de suzanne, suzanne aux yeux noirs

Spanish: ojitos negros, tuya

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Pubescent vine, climbing or trailing; leaves deltoid-ovate or ovate, 4-8 cm long, sagittate or hastate at base, entire or with a few coarse teeth, acute; petioles winged, about as long as blade; peduncles usually longer than petiole; bracteoles about 2 cm long; calyx 2-3 mm long, with 11-14 segments; corolla tube purple, limb yellow orange, rarely white, 2 cm long, 3-4 cm wide across the limb; capsule depressed-globose, about 1 cm wide, the beak 1 cm long; seeds warty and ribbed" (Stone, 1970; p. 536).

Many different varieties and forms with different colored flowers (Fosberg et al., 1993; p. 40).

Habitat/ecology:  Moist areas at low elevations. Climbing, occasionally smothering vine.  In Hawai‘i, cultivated and apparently sparingly naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 175).  In Fiji, "locally frequent from near sea level to about 900 m as a naturalized weed in thickets, cultivated areas, pastures, villages, and plantations, and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; p. 118). In Australia "it tends to be restricted to roadsides and other highly disturbed habitats" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 200).  In Papua New Guinea, "sometimes used as a ground cover in coconut plantations, and in places established as a weed" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 48). In New Caledonia, "Espèce audourd'hui subspontanée plutôt que cultivée" (MacKee, 1994; p. 9).

Propagation:  Seeds, cuttings, and fragments of stems and roots. Cultivated as an ornamental and can spread from dumping of garden cuttings.

Native range:  "Eastern Africa and ranging southward, where it grows in forest margins, black-eyed-Susan vine is now cultivated and widely naturalized throughout the tropics and is also grown extensively as an annual in the temperate zone"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 93).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9203 (BISH)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 118-119)
Voucher cited: Smith 1099
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 698177)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 118-119)
Voucher cited: Smith 7477
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 127878)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 118-119)
Vouchers cited: Smith 8119, DA 8931
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 127877)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 118-119)
Vouchers cited: DA 14365, Greenwood 205A
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 127880)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 118-119)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 205, DA 10302, Smith 5015, DA 11325, DA 10950, DA 11036, DA 11050, DA 10937, DA 10600, Bryan 200
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 33848)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 33849)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 127881)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 127882)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 698178)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 2)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 2)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6649 (PAP)
Ornementale se naturalisant.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 536)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 259)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 127887)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2010) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 070403-02 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
East Maui
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 4)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120002 (BISH, PTBG)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 175)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham s.n. (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 289)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Potential invader".
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 83)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: Cribs 611, Schlechter 14855, MacKee 19524, Toutain 3365
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 6)
An uncommon ornamental.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 109)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9803 (BISH). Not seen in 1965 per Sykes (1970).
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 512)
Used to cover trellises and sometimes ± naturalized.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 48)
From low altitudes to about 1000 m, not generally common but well established in a number of localities.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 14259)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 468)
Thoroughly naturalized in waste places and thickets at low altitudes.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11253
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 127870)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 127871)
Taxon name on voucher: Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 242)
"Occasional in villages".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 57)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 200)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 255)
Ornamental; cultivated or naturalized.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 362)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 346)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 86)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 346)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 362)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 346)

Comments:  A pest in Hawai‘i, but doesn't seem to be causing much problem in Micronesia. Apparently no longer present in Niue (Sykes, 1970; p. 39).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 31 MAY 2011.