Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Thevetia peruviana
(Pers.) K.Schum., Apocynaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold; Thevetia nerifolia Juss. ex Steud.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: huang hua jia zhu tao

Chuukese: kanneeta, koneta

English: be still tree, foreigner's tree, lucky nut, yellow oleander

French: oléandre jaune

Hawaiian: nohomālie

Japanese: kibana-kyotikuto

Maori (Cook Islands): pua, venevene, venevene

Spanish: adelfa amarilla, cabalonga, chirca, jacapa

Tahitian: piti, piti, poupou

Ulithian: irelepsech

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Arborescent shrub; leaves linear-lanceolate, acute or subobtuse, acute at base, coriaceous, dark green somewhat glossy above, paler beneath, petiole very short (3 mm), blade 8-14 cm long, less than 1 cm wide, glabrous; cymes many-flowered; calyx 1-1.3 cm long, lobes acute-acuminate; corolla 5-7 cm long, yellow (rarely light orange); fruit a juicy black drupe 4-5.5 cm broad" (Stone, 1970; p. 486).

Habitat/ecology:  Prefers fertile, well-drained soils, but can survive on most soils (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; p. 200).  Can be invasive on dryer sites.  In Fiji, "freely naturalized in pastures, under coconuts, etc."  (Smith, 1988; p. 88).  In Hawai‘i, "commonly grown as an ornamental since its introduction ca. 1900, now naturalized in disturbed mesic sites"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 215). In New Caledonia, "commun dans les jardins, surtout à Nouméa" (MacKee, 1994; pp. 16-17). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 60).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Peru, now widely cultivated as an ornamental.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1925) (voucher ID: BISH 122565)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 48)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31425 (US), Falanruw 2156 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 598 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L), Fosberg 31347 (US), Moore 358 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 122569)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635214)
Taxon name on voucher: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000065)
Taxon name on voucher: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 99)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 72)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 122563)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, herbarium record pending.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 242 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 122572)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: M. Takamatsu 758 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 122571)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 122573)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 586781)
Taxon name on voucher: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Smith 1303
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 122567)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Bierhorst F184
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: H.B.R. Parham 166, Smith 9617
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 122566)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 8)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
University of California (2006)
"Common cultivated plant".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 35-36)
Voucher cited: Moore 348
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Grant, Martin Lawrence;Fosberg, F. Raymond/Smith, Howard M. (1974) (pp. 52-53)
Vouchers cited: Moore 348 (BISH, MIN), Moore 749 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 35-36)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 179, BRY 24828
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Grant, Martin Lawrence;Fosberg, F. Raymond/Smith, Howard M. (1974) (pp. 52-53)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 179 (BISH, UC), Grant 4429 (BISH, MIN)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2399 (PAP); fa. aurantiaca H. St. John: J. Florence 2409 (PAP)
Ornementale commune. Naturalisée.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 64)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 486)
Voucher cited: Stone 5145 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 122568)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 215)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2011) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & J. Penniman H10091 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 215)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Wysong 800 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 215)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 98)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 64)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 94)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58704 (US), Thaman & Manner 78 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 16-17)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 9935, MacKee 27931, MacKee 29950
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 46)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169907, CHR 169908
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 97)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9905 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 13)
Naturalizing around parent trees.
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
cultivated
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref states "Cultivated"
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 81742)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 122570)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 428472)
Taxon name on voucher: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 175)
Taxon name on voucher: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 445)
Around houses and at roadsides.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 331)
Widely scattered in cultivation as an ornamental plant in the larger towns.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 509026)
Taxon name on voucher: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 114)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 75)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 222)
"Occasional in villages".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 56)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 69)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 58)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990511-1 (BISH)
Reproducing from suckers.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-14)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 200)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated for medicine and as an ornamental. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 213)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 200)
Timor
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) probably native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 86)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated for medicine and as an ornamental.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 30)

Comments:  "All parts of this plant are very poisonous, especially the sap and the oily seeds; hence, no doubt, the name 'be-still' tree, the stillness implied being the ultimate stillness" (Stone, 1970; p. 486).

A significant weed species in Timor (Wilson, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 200).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 26 OCT 2006.