Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Tetragonia tetragonoides
(Pall.) Kuntze, Aizoaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: fan xing

English: New Zealand spinach, warrigal cabbage

French: epinard, tétragone cornue

Spanish: espinaca

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Succulent, stout annual herbs; branches numerous, spreading or procumbent, 3-15 dm log.  Leaves deltate to rhombic-ovate, 2-12 cm long, 1.5-5 cm wide, pubescent with bladder-like hairs, margins entire to undulate, apex obtuse to acute, base truncate to cuneate, abruptly constricted to a winged petiole 1-1.5 cm long.  Flowers sometimes unisexual, 1 (2), axillary; sepals 4 (5), green externally, yellow within, spreading, 1.5-2.5 mm long; stamens 10-20, greenish yellow; ovary inferior, 3-8-celled, subsessile.  Fruit nut-like, fleshy when young, dry and indurate with age, turbinate, angled, ca. 10 mm long, the apex with 2-5 horn-like projections from which another flower or branchlet is occasionally produced.  Seeds usually 1 per cell, reniform, ca. 2 mm in diameter" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 178).

Habitat/ecology:  "In the wild, New Zealand spinach inhabits coastal sand dues and has become naturalized in similar habitats all over the world, including several of the larger Hawaiian islands"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 98).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and now established in scattered coastal sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 178).

Propagation:  Seed, spread by water.

Native range:  "New Zealand, Tasmania, Australia, Japan and South America" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 178).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) native
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 47)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5825 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6420 (PAP), N. Hallé 7561 (PAP)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 178)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 178)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H50805 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Meidell, J. Scott/Bartlett, R. T. (1999) (p. 7)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer 302 (BISH), Oppenheimer H99805 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 23)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Starr & Martz 010821-1 (BISH), Starr & Martz 010821-2 (BISH), Starr & Martz 010821-3 (BISH), Starr & Martz 020109-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (pp. 31-32)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 050517-13 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Nihoa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 178)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 178)
Voucher cited: Forbes 1406.O (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Curtis Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 74-75)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 74-75)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 55)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (2000) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990510-5 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island   Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (p. 24)
Not seen in this survey, probably eradicated.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Sandy shores, also cultivated".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 75)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) native
Allan, H. H. (1982) (p. 204)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé (localement)"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
"Envahissant".


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This page was created on 8 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2011.