Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Talipariti macrophyllum
(Roxb. ex Hornem.) Fryxell, Malvaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da ye mu jin

Habit:  tree

Description: 

GenusTrees (rarely shrubs) 3-50 m tall, the trunks erect or spreading, sometimes angularly branched, the twigs minutely lepidote, puberulent, stellate-pubescent, or with long simple hairs, often glabrescent. Leaf blades often coriaceous, sometimes discolorous, ovate (rarely elliptic or obovate, sometimes deeply lobed in T. hastatum), basally rounded to deeply cordate (rarely cuneate), apically acute or short-acuminate, the margins usually entire (or sometimes obscurely crenulate or denticulate), palmately (or sometimes pedately) nerved, sometimes with one or more nectaries on the abaxial side of the nerves (nectaries usually solitary near base of blade or less commonly several, more distally placed, sometimes absent); petioles usually shorter than (rarely subequal to) the blade, with pubescence similar to that of the young branches although sometimes denser; stipules prominent, lance-ovate to oblong (rarely subfalcate or suborbicular), from 0.5-3 cm long to as much as 11 cm long in T. macrophyllum, sessile and amplexicaul at shoot apex (appressed to stem and enclosing the terminal bud), variously pubescent to glabrescent, rarely spreading or somewhat reflexed, usually early deciduous, leaving prominent annular scars. Pedicels solitary in the upper leaf axils, usually stout and relatively short (rarely exceeding the petioles, except much longer than the petioles in T. glabrum and T. schlechteri), sometimes aggregated terminally or on short side-branches in few-flowered (or up to 9-flowered in T. potteri) sympodial inflorescences: involucel either gamophyllous and cupuliform with 8-12 (or more) dentate or lanceolate teeth or of 5-10 distinct elements, each ligulate to lanceolate to cordate-ovate; calyx 5-lobed (ca. half-divided or sometimes deeply divided), the lobes often costate, more or less plicate in bud distally, with or without a nectary on the midrib of each lobe; corolla campanulate (reflexed in T. borneense), usually large and showy, yellow (with or without a purplish center), white, rose-pink, red, or purplish (sometimes changing color on falling, e.g., yellow to orange or red); staminal column included within corolla, basally pubescent (sometimes densely lanate forming a cushion) or glabrous, antheriferous distallv or throughout length, apically 5-dentate; styles emergent from the staminal column, distally distinct, sometimes pubescent, the 5 stigmas capitate or obliquely capitate, sometimes purplish. Capsules subglobose or ovoid (rarely obovoid), externally densely pubescent {the hairs often yellowish, lepidote, stellate, or simple, sometimes in combination), internally glabrous or sometimes densely wooly, 5-locular but sometimes apparently 10-locular as a result of the presence of false papery dissepiments; seeds 2 to many per carpel, reniform, 3-5 mm long, densely pubescent to seemingly glabrous (though minutely papillate or scabriduious). (Fryxell, 2001; pp. 231-232).

SpeciesTrees 15-25 m tall (sometimes smaller and shrubby), the young stems densely shaggy-hirsute with yellowish stellate hairs to 5-8 mm long simulating simple hairs, and with an understory of smaller stellate hairs. Leaf blades broadly ovate, 5-40 cm long, 4.5-50 cm wide, basally deeply cordate, the margin crenulate to subentire, apically abruptly acuminate, palmately 7-9-nerved, discolorous, coarsely tomentose, more densely so and yellowish beneath, with a nectary on each principal vein beneath positioned 1/3-2/3 the distance from base to apex, the nectary often obscured by pubescence; petioles 17-35 cm long, with pubescence like stem (especially basally); stipules 3-11 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, ovate to scimitar-shaped, sessile and amplexicaul, hirsute (especially externally), deciduous, leaving annular scars. Pedicels axillary, solitary (or sometimes in 2-flowered sympodia), presented horizontally, 1 (-5) cm long, densely hirsute, the subtending leaves reduced to 6-8 cm long; involucel ca. 2.5 cm long, the 8-10 elements nearly distinct, lanceolate or ligulate, ca. 3 mm wide, yellowish hirsute: calyx 2.5-3 cm long, slightly exceeding the involucel, more than half-divided, the 5 lobes each 3-nerved, less densely hirsute than involucel, nectaries absent; petals 4-6 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, yellow with dark red basal spot (fading purplish), glabrous within, externally hirsutulous; staminal column 3-4 cm long, glabrous (?), yellowish, filamentiferous throughout, the filaments 2-8 mm long; anthers yellow, 1.5 mm long; style exceeding staminal column by ca. 8 mm, dividing into 5 purplish red and pilose branches, the stigmas 1.5 mm wide (apparently clavate). minutely pilose. Capsules erect, obovoid, 2.5-3.5 cm long, 18-20 mm in diameter, 5-locular, apiculate or beaked, shaggy-hirsute; seeds numerous, reniform, 4 mm long, with 3 mm ferruginous hairs along edges.

This is perhaps the most distinctive species of the genus and is set apart by a number of characters. Its remarkable pubescence is perhaps the most notable feature, with prominent yellowish hairs 5-8 mm long on the herbage generally. In addition, it has very large stipules, distally placed foliar nectaries on relatively large leaves, obovoid capsules, and seeds with the long seed hairs confined to the edges of the seed." (Fryxell, 2001; pp. 250-251).

Description from the Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  In its native habitat, "in secondary forests from the lowlands up to 1400 m, never along the coast"  (Fryxell, 2001; p. 250).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "India and the Malay peninsula to Java, the Philippines, and southern China. Cultivated and naturalized in Hawaii and perhaps elsewhere"  (Fryxell, 2001; p. 250).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)
Garden [cult.], Degener 9995 (BISH, BRIT, NY, TEX), Degener 10331 (BISH, BRIT, GH, L, MO, NY); Oahu, Palama Valley. 1200 ft, (introduced from Samoa), 17 Jun 1936, Judd SM. (BISH, NY); Hau‘ula. Papali Gulch, 15 Jun 1989, Miller s.n. (BISH); Lyon Arboretum, Toraoka 149 (BISH-2); Hau‘ula Valley, completely naturalized in wet forest, Topping 3151 (NY); HSPA Forest Nursery. Manoa Valley, Yuncker 3565 (NY).
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxburgh ex Hornemann. "Evergreen broad-leaved forests, near villages; 400-1000 m". S. Yunnan
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
Fryxell, P. A. (2001) (pp. 250-251)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 20 OCT 2011 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2012.