Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Syzygium syzygioides
(Miquel) Merrill & L. M. Perry, Myrtaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Eugenia syzygioides (Miq.) M. R. Hend.; Jambosa syzygioides Miq.

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A small to large tree; bark dull reddish brown or greyish brown, fibrous, in young trees nearly smooth, becoming longitudinally fissured, shaggy and flaky.  Twigs slender, terete, drying greyish to reddish brown, bark smooth or somewhat flaky.  Leaves thinly coriaceous, lanceolate or oblong lanceolate to elliptic or ovate elliptic, apex acuminate or caudate acuminate, base cuneate, from c. 4-10 cm long and 1.5-5.5 cm broad, upper surface drying reddish brown to nearly black, more or less polished, minutely punctate, lower surface slightly paler, dull, eglandular; midrib narrowly impressed above, elevate below; primary nerves numerous (to about 25 pairs) and close together, slightly ascending and running straight or curving up rather irregularly to an almost straight intramarginal nerve c. 1 mm or less from leaf margin, raised, fine and distinct below as are the secondaries and close reticulations which are hardly if at all distinguishable from primaries, less distinct above, sometimes raised, sometimes slender, channeled above, less than 1 cm long.  Panicles axillary or terminal, more usually axillary, not more than c. 6 cm long, usually shorter, often clustered, peduncled, sometimes lax, sometimes rather dense, branches very slender, distant, spreading-ascending, compressed or 4-angled with dark bark, bracts and bracteoles minute, subpersistent, ovate acute; flowers white with reddish calyx, sessile in trees or fours at branchlet ends; calyx campanulate, c. 6 mm long and 3 mm across mouth, contracted rather abruptly into a slender pseudostalk 2-2.5 mm long; lobes 4, subpersistent, very small, triangular, blunt, c. 1 mm across base and less than 0.5 mm tall; petals 4, free, orbicular, 2-2.5 mm in diameter, sparsely pellucidly glandular; stamens numerous, filaments slender, subulate, up to c. 4 mm long, anthers broadly oblong, c. 0.3-0.4 mm long, connective gland small but distinct; style much stouter than filaments, subulate, c. 5 mm long; ovary 2-celled, multiovulate.  Fruit ripening dark cherry red to purple black, globular or more or less depressed globular, 8-12 mm in diameter, with conspicuous calyx rim c. 1 mm high; pericarp 1-3 mm thick, fleshy, seed oblong to globose, testa thick, rather leathery, or crustaceous, adhering closely to cotyledons; cotyledons side by side, nearly equal, inner faces plane or slightly concave, point of attachment to hypocotyle close to periphery; plumule and radicle small"  (Henderson, 1942; pp. 154-155).

"This tree...is characterized by elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate leaves 4-10 cm long and 1.5-5.5 cm wide; white flowers with reddish calyces ca. 4 mm long; and globose, or depressed-globose fruit to 12 mm in diameter, dark red or purplish black when ripe"  (Daehler & Baker, 2006; p. 10).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i (O‘ahu), naturalized in Lyon Arboretum where  "dozens of large saplings and mature trees were found in Haukulu, mainly within 100 m of the original plants.  The naturalized plants are spreading into unmanaged areas"  (Daehler & Baker, 2006; p. 10).  "Common in the lowlands, chiefly in secondary growth, and often on rocky and sandy seashores"  (Henderson, 1942; p. 154).

Propagation:  The seeds are probably dispersed by birds  (Daehler & Baker, 2006; p. 10).

Native range:  Tropical Asia (Daehler & Baker, 2006; p. 10).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. (2006) (p. 10)
Vouchers cited: C. Daehler 1089 (BISH), C. Daehler 1312 (HAW)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 84)
Vulnerable


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 20 FEB 2010 and was last updated on 11 JUL 2010.