Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Syzygium malaccense
(L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Myrtaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: 0 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Caryophyllus malaccensis (L.) Stokes; Eugenia malaccensis L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: macupa, makupa

Chinese: ma liu jia pu tao

Chuukese: faaniyaap, faaniyap, faanyaap, fááriyap, faniap, faniap, faniob, faniyap, feniap, feniyap

English: Malay apple, mountain apple, Otaheite-apple, pomerac, rose apple

Fijian: kavika, kavika ndamu, kavika ndamundamu, kavika vulvula, kavikavula, yasi kavika

French: jamboissier rouge, poirier de Malaque, pomme malac, pommier-rose

Hawaiian: ‘ōhi‘, ‘ōhi‘ ‘ai, ‘ōhi‘ ‘ai ke‘oke‘o, ‘ōhi‘ hākea, ‘ōhi‘ kea, ‘ōhi‘ leo, ‘ōhi‘ ‘ula

Kwara‘ae: afio, kabirai, sa‘au, u‘uinialakau

Mangarevan: ahia, keika

Maori (Cook Islands): ka‘ika, ka‘ika makatea, ka‘ika maori, ka‘ika maori, ka‘ika papa‘ā, ka‘ika tavake, ka‘ika tavake, ka‘ika tavake, ka‘ika ‘enua, kaika makatea

Marquesan: kehi‘a, kehika

Marshallese: abōl

Niuean: fekakai

Palauan: kidel

Pohnpeian: apel, apel em Pohnpei, apel en Pohnpei, paniap

Samoan: nonu, nonu, nonu fi‘afi‘a, nonu fi‘afi‘a, nonu fiafia, nonu fiafia, nonu ui, nonu ui, nonu ‘ula, nonu ‘ula

Spanish: manzana de agua, pera noruega, pomarrosa de Malaca

Tahitian: ahia Tahiti, ‘ahia-tea, ‘ahia-‘ura

Tongan: fekika, fekika kai

Tuvaluan: apolo Solomona

Ulithian: harafath

Wallisian: kafika, kafika

Woleaian: faliyap

Yapese: arfath, faliap

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A tree to 15 m tall; leaves opposite, elliptic to oblong-obovate, commonly 10-18 cm (or up to 25 cm) long and 6-8 cm (to 12 cm) wide, glossy, glabrous, paler beneath, obscurely punctate, bluntly acuminate, basally acute; petiole to 10 mm long; flowers in cymes on older branches and on the trunk, cymes about 5 cm long; calyx-tube turbinate, about 1 cm long; 4-lobed, lobes rounded, wider than long; petals red, fugacious, 4-8 mm long and slightly wider, concave, obovate; stamens many (c. 125) erect, red, 1-2 cm long; anthers small, yellowish; ovary discoid red apically, style dark red, nearly 2 cm long; fruit obovoid, about 7 x 6 cm, glossy and slightly waxy in appearance, crisp-succulent, red or white or striped, usually 1-seeded, edible; seed large, about 2 cm broad" (Stone, 1970; p. 448).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "completely naturalized in thickets or dense or open forest from near sea level to an elevation of about 800 m" (Smith, 1985; pp. 352-353). In Hawai‘i, "a Polynesian introduction, now widely naturalized in low elevation mesic to wet sites, primarily mesic valleys, 200-310 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 975-976). In Niue, "common in and near all the villages" (Sykes, 1970; p. 136). In New Caledonia, "est peu commun et apparemment d'introduction récente en Nouvelle-Calédonie" (MacKee, 1994; p. 107). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 90).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Indonesia, Malaysia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in the tropics, exact native range obscure (GRIN). A Polynesian introduction to Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 975-976) and much of the Pacific.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 54)
"Found in and around most every village".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34768)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 54)
"Found in and around most every village".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 54)
"Found in and around most every village".
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 64)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 106)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 309 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 21)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 693 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 117)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 71 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 118 (BISH, NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 39 (BISH, NY, PTBG), M. Gibbons 1000 (BISH), P. Raynor 119 (NY, PTBG), F. Sohl 3 (NY, PTBG), F. Sohl 23 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 722 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 42821)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43694)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43698)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43749)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 48898)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Voucher cited: Smith 305
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Vouchers cited: Garnock-Jones 948, U.S. Expl. Exped.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Voucher cited: Smith 7836
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Voucher cited: Smith 7498
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4646
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Tuvutha Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Voucher cited: Bryan 543
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1052
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Vouchers cited: DA 15780, Smith 6597, Degener & Ordonez 14030
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Vouchers cited: Smith 4303, Gillespie 4252, Horne 914, DA 15665, DF 499 (Damanu 138), Gillespie 2527, DF 556, Degener 15501, St. John 18206, MacDaniels 1056, DA 15563, DA 3858, Seemann 161
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 352-353)
Voucher cited: St. John 18124
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: St. John 14461 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39841)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39358)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 202)
Voucher cited: Grant 5098
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11552 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 53)
Voucher cited: Morris 13 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 202)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 61003
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: P. Birnbaum 64 (PAP), J. Florence & P. Birnbaum 9740 (PAP), J. Florence 7795 (PAP), J. Florence 2110 (PAP), J. Florence 4849 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 202)
Vouchers cited: Moore 130, BRY 26433
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10364 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10517 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 202)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4044, Florence 8669, BRY 25725
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3993 (PAP), J. Florence 8669 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11260 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 448)
Presence uncertain.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 975-976)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 10)
"Rare; young trees planted near Council Hall".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 10)
"Occasional; trees near houses, planted for food".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 111)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A18)
Rare; few trees planted in private gardens, Mili, Tokewa, Bar, Nallo.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 175)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 106-107)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19526
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 136)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170456, CHR 170459
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 91)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9706 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 50)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1992) (voucher ID: BNM 93)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & Perry
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 45950)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium malaccense
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Merir Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 409)
Common, everywhere in gardens and in regrowth.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 51)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 170)
Cultivated for its edible fruits, although nowhere naturalized.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: R. A. Young 51, St. John 15018
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 73)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 203-204)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15772, Yuncker 15988
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 203-204)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15858
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 203-204)
"Frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 203-204)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15529
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 203-204)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15178, Yuncker 15265
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 203-204)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 37)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated but sometimes naturalized in mixed forests in Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 83)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated but sometimes naturalized in mixed forests.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island extirpated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 113)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 29)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 55)


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This page was created on 15 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 28 AUG 2010.