Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Syzygium jambos
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Myrtaceae


High risk, score: 20 (Go to the risk assessment) Caryophyllus jambos (L.) Stokes; Eugenia jambos L.

Chinese: pu tao

English: jambos, jambu, jamrosa, Malabar plum, Malabar plum, rose apple, wax jambu

Fijian: kavika, kavika ni India, kavika ni vavalangi

French: jambosier, jambrosade, jamrosa, jamrosat, jamrosier, pomme-rose, pommier rose, prunier de Malabar

Hawaiian: ‘ohi‘a loke

Maori (Cook Islands): ka‘ika, ka‘ika papa‘ā, ka‘ika takataka, ka‘ika varāni

Pohnpeian: apel en wai, iouen wai, youenwai

Rapa Nui: haia

Samoan: seasea pālagi, seasea pālagi

Spanish: manzana rosa, pomarrosa, yambo

Tahitian: ahi‘a papa‘a

Tongan: fa palangi, fekika pāpālangi, hehea ha‘amoa

"Trees 6-15 m tall, bark grayish brown, smooth, glabrous throughout.  Leaves thin, coriaceous, somewhat pendent, narrowly lanceolate, 10-23 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, principal lateral veins 10-20 pairs, 5-15 mm apart, submarginal vein irregular, apex long-acuminate, base cuneate, petioles 0.5-1 cm long.  Flowers in terminal, once-branched cymes ca. 2 cm long, peduncles 0.7-1.5 cm long, bracts 0.8-1 mm long; hypanthium funnelform, 7-10 mm long, narrowing into a short pseudostipe 3-4 mm long; sepals 4, fleshy, unequal, one pair 6-8 mm long, the other pair 4-6  mm long, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, persistent; petals 4, white to greenish white, orbicular to ovate-orbicular, concave, 12-20 mm long, caducous; stamens ca. 200, filaments creamy white, 10-50 mm long.  Berries whitish yellow to pinkish yellow, subglobose, 2-4 cm long, pericarp fleshy, 10-15 mm thick.  Seed usually 1, subglobose, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, testa closely coherent to cotyledons"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 975)

"A tropical fruit tree up to 10 m tall.  The terminal inflorescence is showy and usually carries four whitish-green flowers on the outside of the crown.  Flowering can occur two or three times per year.  The fruits are whitish-green, rose scented, about 5 cm long and ripen over an extended period.  The dry, crisp fresh fruit is used to make jellies.  Fruit/seed can be produced following self-pollination" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 58).

"Grand arbre pouvant atteindre 15 m de hauteur et 70 cm de diamètre à la base, reconnaissable à ses feuilles lancéolées, coriaces, de couleur vert-sombre, à ses fleurs à quatre pétales jaunâtres ou blanc-verdâtres contenant des centaines de grandes étamines blanches et à ses gros fruits charnus et comestibles jaunâtres (à « parfum de rose » d’où son nom anglais), contenant une à deux grosses graines de 2 à 5 cm de diamètre"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 26). This medium-sized deciduous tree forms dense thickets which shade out native species. It invades undisturbed forest.  The tree thrives under a variety of edaphic conditions but is most commonly found in wet lowland habitats up to about 500 m elevation in Hawai‘i (C. W. Smith, 1985; p. 186), to 100 m in French Polynesia.  In Fiji, "cultivated and occasionally naturalized in thickets and waste places from near sea level to an elevation of about 850 m"  (A. C. Smith, 1985; pp. 356-357). In New Caledonia, "cultivé à Koé en 1883, se rencontre aujourd'hui surtout à l'état spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 106). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 85).

"On the island of La Reunion in the Indian Ocean, S. jambos is considered to be the most ecologically important weed in the riverine areas of semi-dry riparian forest, where it has formed dense, tall, almost monospecific stands in the absence of human disturbance.  The plant is capable of invading undisturbed ecosystems and reducing their conservation values.  It readily invades disturbed rainforest." (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 58). The fruit is dispersed by humans and perhaps feral pigs. Southeast Asia.
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 38)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 26, 30)
"Nous avons observé des forêts denses mais localisés dans le cratère de Rano Kau, avec une régénération très abondante au sol et des fourrés isolés sur la côte ouest de l’île vers Tahai et sur la côte nord de l’île" (Meyer, 2008; p. 26).
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 82146)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia jambos L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 166464)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 71)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 166463)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 117)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 34632)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 356-357)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 917
Occasionally naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 356-357)
Vouchers cited: Smith 5141, Gillespie 2817, Gillespie 3394.4, DA 12101, DA L.11440
Occasionally naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14920)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 166746)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 166747)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 166748)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 166749)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (year unknown)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4244 (PAP), J. Florence 7474 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 555148)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 81)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 202)
Vouchers cited: Moore 316, BRY 26370a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3813 (PAP)
Naturalisée, Menace pour la biodiversité
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491135)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia jambos L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 202)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 240, Grant 4583, Florence 8055
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (year unknown)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3217 (PAP), J. Florence 8055 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492051)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia jambos L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 554169)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 607509)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia jambos L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 40)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Commence à devenir envahissant à partir des sites de naturalisation". Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11289 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 644241)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6224 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552801)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia jambos L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 166970)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1919) (voucher ID: BISH 166971)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Vouchers cited: de Pompéry s.n., Cäniker 375, Virot 313, MacKee 2671, MacKee 8064, MacKee 40686
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 136)
Single tree per Sykes. Voucher cited: CHR 170460
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 25)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 168)
In and about towns in cultivation, occasinally naturalized; of prehistoric introduction.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 103)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: R. A. Young 12, St. John 15030, Fosberg & B. Christian 11174
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 680 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Commun jusque sous le sommet de l'île, très envahissant à partir des vieilles plantations, en formation quasi monospécifiques qui grignotent les derniers lambeaux forestiers". Voucher cited: J. Florence 11033 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 643136)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 166582)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439230)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 203)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16116
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 166580)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 13, 36)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 58)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 58)
Naturalized at isolated locations.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed forests, mountain slopes, riversides, river valleys; below 100 to 1500 m. Cultivated and sometimes escaped in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan and Yunnan. Var. tripinnatum believed to be native.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 164)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 425)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed forests, mountain slopes, riversides, river valleys; below 100 to 1500 m. Cultivated and sometimes escaped. Var. tripinnatum believed to be native.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 129)
May naturalize.
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Grande Comore (Njazidja) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 58)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 29)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1986) (pp. 147-162)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln (2003)
A major invasive species in French Polynesia and other locations in the Pacific, the Galápagos Islands and the islands of Mauritius and La Réunion in the Indian Ocean.

"Not widespread in Tahiti where it forms very dense but localized stands. However, the rose-apple has become highly invasive in the island of Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas in cloud forests up to 1000 m elevation. the rose-apple produces large fruits with are only dispersed by gravity (short-distance) in Tahiti in places where trees have been planted (usually at low elevation) and as the species needs a high humidity to grow it is only found near rivers. In Nuku Hiva, the fruits are eaten and actively dispersed by a giant endemic pigeon (Ducula galeata) over long-distances and up in the montane rainforests where the habitat seems more favorable" (Jean-Yves Meyer, pers. com).

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.

Chemical:  "Sensitive to picloram applied cut-surface and to glyphosate applied to drilled holes.  Good control with triclopyr applied basal bark and cut-surface"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"Seule la lutte chimique par le traitement des souches après coupe des gros arbres ou l’injection d’un herbicide dans le tronc (à base de triclopyr) ainsi que l’arrachage manuel des tapis de plantules au sol est réalisable"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 26).


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