Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Syngonium angustatum
Schott, Araceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: arrowhead vine, goosefoot, syngonium

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Juvenile plants with stems not glaucous, usually sparsely muricate; petioles sheathed usually less than 1/3 their length; blades dark green, marked on the upper surface along the principal veins with gray green, cordate, less than 6 cm long, the anterior lobe ovate, the posterior lobes suborbicular; intermediate leaves sagittate or hastate, acuminate at the apex. Adult stems not glaucous, sparsely muricate; internodes mostly 2-10 cm long on the flowering stems; petioles sometimes pruinose, sheathed 1/2-4/5 their length, 15-40 cm long; blades pedatisect, dark green above, sometimes grayish green on the midrib and rarely on the lateral veins; leaflets 3-11, usually conspicuously free from one another, the lowermost auriculate, the median leaflet elliptic to oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, acuminate at the apex, attenuate, acute or cuneate at the base, 11-31 cm long, 4-10 cm wide, the rachis gradually curved, the lateral leaflets inequilateral, the inner margin acute to cuneate, the outer margin rounded to auriculate, the auricle rounded to bluntly acute, rarely slightly pinched off; primary lateral veins 3-5 pairs, sunken above, raised beneath; tertiary veins distinct. Inflorescences to ca. 7 per axil; peduncles glaucous, almost 3-sided, 5-10 cm long, and erect at anthesis, to 17 cm long and pendent in fruit; spathe 7 to 14 cm long; spathe tube elliptic, 2-5 cm long, 1.0-2.5 cm diameter, green and usually glaucous outside, green inside; spathe blade cream on both surfaces, 6-9 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm wide, acuminate at the apex; pistillate portion of the spadix 1.3-2.6 cm long, 5-10 mm diameter, greenish, the flowers irregularly hexagonal, the stigma discoid; staminate portion 2.5-6.5 cm long, 5-15 mm diameter, pale yellow, the flowers completely fused into a synandrium with no sign of fusion, the apex conspicuously refuse. Infructescences usually bright red, sometimes reddish orange, sometimes glaucous; fruiting spadix brown, 2.5-4.5 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm diameter" (Croat, 1981; pp. 605-606).

"At least ten cultivars have been developed by the nursery trade for use as indoor plants and garden ornamentals.  Leaf color varies considerably depending on variety.  In general, leaves are arrowhead-shaped and glossy.  The inflorescence comprises 6-9 green tubular-oblong flowers"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 198).

Similar species: Syngonium podophyllum Schott

S. podophyllum var. podophyllum:  "Stems glaucous (at least in northern Central America), smooth, lacking any emergences; leaf segments usually somewhat unequal, not of relatively uniform size and shape; petioles subterete or with only an obtuse medial rib; staminate flowers truncate at the apex with an indication of the line of fusion; Mexico to Panama" (Croat, 1981).

S. angustatum:  "Stems not glaucous, sometimes with numerous rough emergences; leaf segments usually slender, of nearly equal size and shape; petioles subterete, usually with a sharp medial rib; rachis usually gradually curved, not angular between each segment; staminate flowers deeply retuse at the apex, showing no indication of the line of fusion; Mexico to Costa Rica"  (Croat, 1981).

Habitat/ecology:  Climbing epiphyte. Grows under shady conditions. Prefers moist, fertile soil.

Propagation:  Mostly, if not exclusively, vegetative.

Native range:  Central America from Mexico to Panama. A common household plant.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
S. angustatum cv. 'Albolineatum' per Sykes, pers. com.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
S. angustatum cv. 'Albolineatum' per Sykes, pers. com.
Escapes from cultivation.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 83)
S. angustatum cv. 'Albolineatum' per Sykes, pers. com.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
S. angustatum cv. 'Albolineatum' per Sykes, pers. com.
Escapes from cultivation.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
S. angustatum cv. 'Albolineatum' per Sykes, pers. com.
Escapes from cultivation.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
S. angustatum cv. 'Albolineatum' per Sykes, pers. com.
Escapes from cultivation.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665691)
Taxon name on voucher: Syngonium angustatum Schott
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666070)
Taxon name on voucher: Syngonium angustatum Schott
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 94)
S. angustatum
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 6)
As Syngonium podophyllum but probably this species since it was previously reported by Fosberg et al.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 94)
S. angustatum
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 6)
As Syngonium podophyllum but probably this species since it was previously reported by Fosberg et al.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 94)
S. angustatum
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 6)
As Syngonium podophyllum but probably this species since it was previously reported by Fosberg et al.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 94)
S. angustatum
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 6262 (PAP)
Locally spontaneous.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D. Baré 73 (PAP), J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11073 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 417279)
Taxon name on voucher: Syngonium angustatum Schott
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Syngonium sp. Voucher cited: J. Florence 4725 (PAP)
"Ornementale se naturalisant le long de la route".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63777 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10193 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 94-95)
S. angustatum and S. angustatum cv. 'Albolineatum'
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 649970)
Taxon name on voucher: Syngonium angustatum Schott
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54909 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 94)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 104)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 30)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 94)
S. angustatum
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 43)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58722 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 94)
S. angustatum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 15, 82)
Escaping from cultivation.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 17)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 15, 82)
Escaping from cultivation.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 15, 82)
Escaping from cultivation.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 15, 91)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
As S. podophyllum
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
As S. podophyllum
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
As S. podophyllum
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 31)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 1, 6)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Plants not specifically identified as S. angustatum or S. podophyllum are listed under Syngonium angustatum.

Climber, spreading within the National Park of Samoa (Tutuila Unit) (Space & Flynn, 2000).

Common in Chuuk (Space, Waterhouse, Denslow, Nelson & Mazawa, 2000) and on Rota (Space, Waterhouse, Denslow & Nelson, 2000).

Invasive in Niue (Space & Flynn, 2000).

Mostly cultivated but some naturalization seen in Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001) and Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Listed as a weed in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama (Holm et al. cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 198).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 26 OCT 2006.