Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Swietenia macrophylla
King, Meliaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: big-leaf mahogany, broadleaved mahogany, Honduras mahogany, large-leaved mahogany, mahogany, sky fruit tree

French: acajou

Samoan: mahoki, mahoki

Spanish: aguano, caoba

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large tree; leaves 15-35 cm long; leaflets in 6-12 pairs, lanceolate, 7-15 cm long, 2.5-7 cm wide, inequilateral at base, acuminate at apex, petioluled, entire, coriaceous, glabrous; panicles 9-20 cm long; bracts and bracteoles orbicular or nearly so, deciduous; calyx cup 2-2.5 mm wide, lobes rounded; petals obovate to spatulate, 5-6 mm long, 2-3 mm wide; capsule ovoid, 12-15 cm long, 7-7.5 cm wide, acute to acuminate apically; seeds 7.5-8.5 cm long, the wing about twice as long as body, reddish brown."  (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 699-700).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges.  A fast growing and shade tolerant tree that withstands pronounced periods of dry weather.  It establishes well in disturbed sites and in secondary forests, becoming the dominant species and will suppress native plants"  (Weber, 2003; p. 423).

In Hawai‘i (West Maui), widely naturalized in disturbed lowland mesic forest (Meidell et al., 1998; pp. 6-7). Moist forests (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 699-700).

Propagation:  "Seed production is prolific and seeds are dispersed by wind.  The tree has some ability to sprout after cutting"  (Weber, 2003; p. 423).

Native range:  Southern Mexico to Peru and Brazil (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 699-700).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 20)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 112)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 573-574)
Vouchers cited: DF 602 (S1401/2), Damanu 128, DF 601 (S1401/1), DA 16412, DA 16418, DA 13799 (DF 264),DF 603 (S1401/3), DF 604 (S1401/4),Vesa 5, DF 605 (S1401/5)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meidell, J. Scott/Oppenheimer, H. L./Bartlett, R. T. (1998) (pp. 6-7)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Meidell & Oppenheimer 201 (BISH)
Widespread in disturbed lowland mesic forest.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meidell, J. Scott/Oppenheimer, H. L./Bartlett, R. T. (1998) (pp. 6-7)
Voucher cited: Wood 5084 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 101)
Voucher cited: Dapzol in MacKee 39604
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 119)
Voucher cited: 169805
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
cultivated
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref states "Cultivated"
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 31)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Voucher: Lorence 9790 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 83)
Taxon name on voucher: Swietenia macrophylla King
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 81)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 111)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 82)
Casual
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 423)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 54)

Comments:  Reported as possibly an invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.

Chemical:  Cut large plants and treat the stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 423).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 21 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 26 DEC 2011.