Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Stephania japonica
(Thunb.) Miers, Menispermaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: qian jin teng

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Vines, glabrous or pubescent. Root woody, not tuberous, brownish yellow. Stems slender, slightly woody when old, sometimes prostrate and rooting at nodes. Petiole 3-12 cm; leaf blade conspicuously peltate, usually triangular-rotund or broadly triangular-ovate to rotund, 5-12 (-15) cm, as wide as or slightly wider than long, papery to thinly leathery, abaxially glabrous or hirsute, often glaucous, adaxially glossy, base usually broadly rounded, apex with a finely mucronate acumen, palmately 8-11-veined, raised abaxially, reticulation slightly raised, conspicuous. Inflorescences compound umbelliform cymes, usually axillary, rarely 2 or few on short axillary branches; peduncle to 6 cm; rays often very short, umbellet very condensed, headlike; axes glabrous or pubescent; pedicels almost absent. Male flowers: sepals 6 or 8 in 2 whorls, membranous, yellowish green, oblanceolate or obovate-elliptic to spatulate or narrowly elliptic, 1-1.5 mm, glabrous or pubescent; petals 3 or 4, slightly fleshy, yellow, broadly obovate to rotund, 0.5-1 mm, glabrous, rarely apex slightly concave; synandrium 0.5-1 mm, exserted or not, anthers 6. Female flowers: sepals 3 or 4, shape and size as in male or smaller; petals 3 or 4, shape and size as in male or slightly smaller; carpel ovoid, stigma lacerate. Infructescences with hard and slightly curved umbellet pedicels. Drupes red, obovate to subglobose, 6-8 mm; endocarp 5-6 mm, abaxially ornamented with 10 or slightly more rows of transvers ridges; condyle perforate or not"  (Flora of China 7, 2008; p. 19).

var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman:  "Stems glabrous. Petiole usually shorter than or subequal to leaf blade; leaf blade abaxially glabrous except sometimes near petiole. Peduncle 1.5-6 cm; inflorescence axes pubescent. Male flowers: sepals spatulate-oblong to narrowly elliptic, glabrous. Drupes obovoid, 6-7 mm; condyle perforate"  (Flora of China 7, 2008; p. 19).

Habitat/ecology:  "Village margins, shrublands, open forests, forest margins, limestone mountains"  (Flora of China 7, 2008; p. 19).  In Hawai‘i, "the species has spread well beyond the original planting at Waimea Botanical Garden and is reportedly established beyond the garden's ability to control, given current resources"  (Frohlich & Lau, 2007; p. 12).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eastern and southeastern Asia, Australia (GRIN). Var. timorensis indigenous to some Pacific islands (Smith, 1981; p. 149).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 149)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
var. timoriensis (DC.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. timoriensis (A.P. de Candolle) J. Florence. Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 2455 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9499 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
var. timoriensis (DC.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
var. timoriensis (DC.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8408 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41664)
Taxon name on voucher: Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers var. timoriensis (DC.) Forman
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
var. timoriensis (DC.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
var. timoriensis (DC.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. timoriensis (A.P. de Candolle) J. Florence. Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 1980 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
var. timoriensis (DC.)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2007) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: D. Frohlich & A. Lau s.n. (BISH 725945)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 149-150)
In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 149)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 149)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 45)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray. Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15823, Buelow 336
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 149)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 45)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray. Vouchers cited: Parks 16012, Parks 16278, Parks 16363, Parks 16387, Yuncker 15544, Soakai 342, Sykes 100, Whistler 5012, Whistler 5971, Whistler 6514
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 45)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray. Vouchers cited: USEE s.n., Buelow 55, Whistler 6671
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 45)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray. Vouchers cited: Harvey s.n., Crosby s.n., Yuncker 16115, Hotta 5057, Buelow 850, Buelow 929
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 149)
var. timoriensis (Candolle) Forman as Stephania forsteri (DC.) A. Gray.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Village margins, shrublands, open forests, forest margins, limestone mountains".
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  While this species is native to parts of Melanesia and Polynesia, it is invasive in Hawai‘i and should not be introduced to islands where it is not naturally present.


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This page was created on 19 FEB 2010 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2010.