Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Stachytarpheta cayennensis
(Rich.) Vahl, Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject. score: 20 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Stachytarpheta dichotoma (Ruiz & Pav.) Vahl.; Stachytarpheta urticaefolia (Salisb.) Sims; Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims

Common name(s): [more details]

Chuukese: ouchung, sakura

English: blue rat's tail, blue snakeweed, Brazilian tea, Cayenne snakeweed, Cayenne vervain, dark blue snakeweed, false verbena, joee, nettleleaf velvetberry, rough-leaved false vervain, vervain

Fijian: lavenia, se karakarawa, serakawa, tumbutumbu, turulakaka

French: herbe á chenille, herbe bleue, queue de rat

Hawaiian: ōi, ōwī

I-Kiribati: te uti

Mangarevan: piripiri

Maori (Cook Islands): tiāki

Nauruan: edidubai, edidubaiy

Niuean: mautofu Samoa, motofu, motofu Samoa

Palauan: louch beluu

Rotuman: finak ne puak, sere

Samoan: fua pepe, fua pepe, mautofu, mautofu, mautofu, mautofu tala, mautofu tala, mautofu vao, taioti, vao pepe

Spanish: piche de gato, rabo de zorro

Tongan: hiku ‘i kuma, ‘iku ‘i kuma, iku ‘i kumā

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Coarse perennial herbs 8-20 dm tall, sometimes somewhat woody toward base; stems usually weakly erect, intricately branched, very sparsely puberulent.  Leaves opposite, membranous, elliptic to broadly elliptic or ovate, 4-8 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide, upper surface rugose, both surfaces glabrous or occasionally lower surface with a few scattered hairs usually along the veins and margins, margins sharply and coarsely serrate, the teeth conspicuously divergent, apex acute, base cuneate, petioles 0.5-2 cm long.  Spikes slender, rachis flexuous to erect or somewhat nodding, 14-40 cm long, ca. 2.5 mm in diameter, the furrows somewhat shallow, nearly as wide as the rachis, bracts lanceolate, ca. 7 mm long; calyx ca. 7 mm long, the teeth subequal; corolla usually dark purplish blue with a paler center, the tube 7-8 mm long."  (Wagner et al., 1999).

An erect, sparsely-branched shrub with dark green bulate leaves, greenish spikes, and dark lavender flowers.  Leaves usually 4-10 cm long, ovate-elliptic, or ovate; leaf teeth ciliate; spikes 20-40 cm long (Stone, 1970).  Fruit a nutlet in a drupe, enclosed by a persistent calyx (Haselwood, 1966).

"Arbrisseau à petit arbuste de 1 à 2 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses feuilles opposées à marges dentées et ses grandes inflorescences dressées à petites fleurs de couleur bleue à violette, parfois blanche"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 34).

"Stachytarpheta jamaicensis hybridizes with S. cayennensis.  In general, the hybrids resemble S. jamaicensis more closely than S. cayennensis, but the corollas are darker in color than typical in S. jamaicensis, the habit is more erect, and the leaves are usually more ovate, darker green, and with more divergent teeth similar to S. cayennensis (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1323-1324).

Similar species: S. jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (common names: blue porterweed, joee). S. jamaicensis is more a weed of openings and roadsides while S. cayennensis  is more shade-tolerant and will invade into forests. However, the two species are known to hybridize (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1323-1324).

Habitat/ecology:  "A common and important weed of crops, pastures, plantations, roadsides and wasteland, and also occurs as a minor weed in most other places.  It grows best in deep, moist, fertile, disturbed soil" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 18).  "Invades forests and pastures in mesic to wet areas.  Readily invades disturbed areas, often forming dense stands in high-rainfall areas.  Also persists in lower densities in dry areas"  (Motooka et al., 2003). Tolerates drought.

In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, waste land and pastures; both this and S. jamaicensis are unpalatable to livestock, and so may outgrow useful species in heavily-grazed pasture. From low altitudes to about 2000 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 160).  In Hawai‘i, "most frequently naturalized in shaded, mesic, disturbed sites, 15-200 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1323-1324).  In Fiji, "an abundantly naturalized weed at elevations from near sea level to about 850 m in clearings, coconut plantations, and pastures, along trails and roadsides, and on reed-covered slopes"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 170-171). In Tonga, "a common roadside and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 230-231). In New Caledonia, "commune comme plante rudérale et dans les pâturages où certains éleveurs lui accordent quelque valeur fourragère, d'autres le traitant de mauvaise herbe gênante" (MacKee, 1994; p. 140). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 167).

Propagation:  "Usually spread intentionally as ornamental plants.  Seeds are also dispersed on vehicles, by the movement of soil in refuse from gardens and by rainwater.  In Queensland [Australia] they have been spread in fodder, hay and in contaminated pasture seed."  (Smith, 2002; pp. 42-43).

Native range:  Tropical America, but now pantropical.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 41)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 54)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34850)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 43)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 47)
S. jamaicensis also present.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
S. jamaicensis also present. Vouchers cited: Garber 656, Yuncker 9026
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 60)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9026 (BISH), Garber 656 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 187735)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 187736)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9122)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3364
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430264)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 38)
S. jamaicensis also present.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 187729)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 44886)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta dichotoma (Ruiz & Pavon) Vahl
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 34, 43)
"Nous avons observé quelques individus plantés comme ornementales dans les jardins du village de Hanga Roa" (Meyer, 2008; p. 34).
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438409)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438430)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 22265)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 59)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 82008)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 187756)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 187787)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 7)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fanurmot Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633402)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 7)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 571494)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 45)
Voucher cited: Marshall 66 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 652546)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 652544)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 7)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81694)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 187786)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Beqa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 448429)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Voucher cited: Smith 11
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 187802)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 772
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbengga Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Voucher cited: Weiner 208
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Voucher cited: Smith 7946
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 187804)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Voucher cited: Smith 7734
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 187803)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 637933)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4651.3
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 187805)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Vouchers cited: DA 5018, DA 10466, Degener & Ordonez 14212
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 33731)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 992
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 699122)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 170-171)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 420, DA 9684, Smith 4317, Gibbs 812, DA 10178, H.B.R. Parham 132, DA 10538, Greenwood 13A, DA 10816, DA 3941, DA 9966, DA 10582, DA 10999, Bryan 201
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 33729)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 33730)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 33732)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 187799)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 187800)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 187801)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: St. John 14509 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39838)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta cayennensis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41670)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta cayennensis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: K.R. Wood & J.-P. Luce 6590 (PAP), S.P. Perlman , K.R. Wood & J.-P. Luce 16021 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24442)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27900)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 15868 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 296-297)
Voucher cited: Grant 5251
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11659 (PAP), D. Baré 82 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643419)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 296-297)
Voucher cited: Cartier 255
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: C.L. Cartier 154 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 255 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 63636 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 187744)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491616)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Sachet 949 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 296-297)
Voucher cited: Moore 229
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10416 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491636)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642429)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Manuae (Scilly) Atoll (Society Islands) introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 152)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 152)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 296-297)
Vouchers cited: Tyron & Tilden 417, Setchell & Parks 120
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2873 (PAP), J. Florence 3938 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493162)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493174)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38235)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 296-297)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1984
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1984 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10098 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633897)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9997 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633943)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll   Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 33)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2053 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7100 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 541738)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10228 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642919)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5745 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553651)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5518 (PAP), J. Florence 6013 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553128)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 508)
Voucher cited: Stone 5141 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 81866)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1324, 1896)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1324, 1896)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1321-1322, 1896)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1324, 1896)
Voucher cited: Hillebrand & Lydgate s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1324, 1896)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1324, 1896)
Voucher cited: Forbes s. n. (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
As Stachytarpheta urticifolia Sims
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 30)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 80539)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 52)
as Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl. Voucher cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54896 (US, HAW, K)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 402122)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 33068)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 426303)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 453013)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Lamberson, J. O. (1982) (p. 55)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 37)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 39476 (US), Fosberg 41383 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 38819)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 38831)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 421874)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 207)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58632 (US), Scully 109N (US), Thaman & Manner 12 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9543 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19440
New Caledonia
Récifs D'Entrecasteaux (D'Entrecasteaux Reefs)
Île Surprise introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: MacKee 31444
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: MacKee 27241
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 513 (Z)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2229
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45874
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Hmakone & Sam in MacKee 25843
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 383)
Commune comme plante rudérale et dans les pâturages.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 187797)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Vouchers cited: (as S. cayennensis) Grunow s.n. (W), Buchholz 1612, MacKee 4502, MacKee 20307, MacKee 38568; (as S. urticaefolia) Balansa 511, Cribs 653, MacKee 43591
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 10849)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Baumann 13354
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 215)
Voucher cited: CHR 169883
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 40)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 49)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 101)
Misidentified as Stachytarpheta indica Vahl per Sykes (1970). Voucher cited: Yuncker 10024 (BISH)
"In waste areas, but as yet not common".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81671)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 81675)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 846)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia Sims.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 81619)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 420262)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 571579)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81672)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 567731)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 571944)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngidech Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 160)
From low altitudes to about 2000 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100408)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 603952)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 609004)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28512)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28555)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1893) (voucher ID: BISH 187732)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 187734)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 418001)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439224)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 110)
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 81)
Voucher cited: Coakaia 302
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kotu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 440421)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kotu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640421)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41352)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 651865)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1000868)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 231)
"Common throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 81)
Voucher cited: Soakai 969 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 81)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 38, Lawrence 56, Soakai 602, Soakai 811
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 231)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15105
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 18833)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41386)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 187737)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 699123)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 611043)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 1000767)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 81)
Voucher cited: Soakai 804
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 30)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 573737)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Sachet 901 (US)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1903) (voucher ID: BISH 187794)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 180)
As Stachytarpheta urticifolia
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Alofi Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 10, 38)
Naturalisé en zone ouverte sur les pistes abandonnées, en bordure de route ou de pinède où il forme des fourrés très denses.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
"Potential invader". Secondary vegetation.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 351)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 42-43)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 42-43)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 351)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
As Stachytarpheta urticaefolia Sims
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 81)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 351)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 351)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 12)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 30)
As Stachytarpheta urticaefolia Salisb.) Sims
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38064)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticaefolia (Salisb.) Sims.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 184)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2855 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 156)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3111 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 421)

Comments:  A declared noxious weed in the Northern Territory, Australia (Smith, 2002; pp. 42-43).

A problem weed in French Polynesia. Very prevalent in the Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002), American Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2000), Niue (Space & Flynn, 2000), Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002) and Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).

Control:  "La lutte manuelle par arrachage des plants associée à un traitement chimique par aspersion d’un herbicide (à base de glyphosate) sur les tiges ou les feuilles sont réalisables" (Meyer, 2008; p. 34).

Physical:  "Controlled by chipping or cultivation.  Suppressed by slashing and competition from vigorous pasture species" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 30).  "Goats will not browse joee (An Peischel).  Grubbing or pulling with care to remove larger roots can control scattered plants"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical:  "Probably controlled by translocated herbicides, including 2,4-D and glyphosate at standard rates.  It should be susceptible to wick-wiping with glyphosate"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 30).  "Sensitive to foliar application of 1 lb/acre of 2,4-D or MCPA.  Less sensitive to other hormone-type herbicides, although it has been reported that drizzle application of triclopyr in water was effective in trials on Palau"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Biological: Possible biocontrol agents are discussed by Waterhouse and Norris (1987).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).

Additional online information about Stachytarpheta cayennensis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Stachytarpheta cayennensis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Stachytarpheta cayennensis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM846(Blackburn, B. E-3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1893. Voucher specimen #BISH 187732 (Reinecke 19).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1903. Voucher specimen #BISH 187794 (Seale, A.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 187735 (Garber, D.W. 656).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 187801 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 201).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 187805 (Gillespie, J.W. 4651.3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 187734 (Christophersen, E. 156).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 187756 (Wilder, G.P. 713).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 187802 (Smith, A.C. 11).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 187736 (Yuncker, T.G. 9026).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 187800 (Degener, O. 13505).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 420262 (Fosberg, F.R. 25655).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 421874 (St.John, H. 21728).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 571579 (Fosberg, F.R. 25655).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 187787 (Wong, C.C.Y. 256).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 187799 (Smith, A.C. 4317).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 187786 (Wong, C.C.Y. 307).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 187797 (Buchholz, J.T. 1613).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 10849 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 1578).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 571494 (Anderson, D. 2075).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 571944 (Fosberg, F.R. 31959).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 187737 (Yuncker, T.G. 15105).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 187803 (Smith, A.C. 7734).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 187804 (Smith, A.C. 7946).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 33730 (Nand, S. 10538).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 33731 (Koroiveibau, D. 10466).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 33729 (Koroiveibau, D. 10743).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 33732 (Ledua, M.K. 10999).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 18833 (Lawrence, E. 38).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 38831 (Fosberg, F.R. 39476).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 41386 (Lawrence, E. 56).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 187729 (Wisner, A.W. 9).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 699123 (Lawrence, E. 38).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 41352 (Soakai, E. 302).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 38819 (Fosberg, F.R. 41383).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81671 (Fosberg, F.R. 47574).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81672 (Fosberg, F.R. 47619).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81694 (Evans, M. 1391).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 567731 (Fosberg, F.R. 47619).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 81619 (Hardy, S. 38).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 187744 (Smith, H.M. 125).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 426303 (Sachet, M.-H. 1414).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 453013 (Adair, F. GLBT/43/FA).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28512 (Bristol, M.L. 1980).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28555 (Bristol, M.L. 2023).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 81675 (Fosberg, F.R. 50613).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 81866 (Falanruw, M.V.C. 855).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 82008 (Stoddart, D.R. 2236).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 80539 (Russell, D.J. 68).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 100408 (Whistler, W.A. W 103).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 402122 (Herbst, D.R. 2765).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 448429 (Weiner, M.A. MW-72-F-208).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 418001 (Whistler, W.A. W 2096).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 430264 (Whistler, W.A. W 3364).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 611043 (Kirch 293).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000767 (Kirch 293).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 699122 (Garnock-Jones, P.J. 307388).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438409 (Fosberg, F.R. 58229).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438430 (Fosberg, F.R. 58305).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1979. Voucher specimen #BISH 439224 (Cox, P.A. 358).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 652544 (Fosberg, F.R. 60229).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 652546 (Fosberg, F.R. 60156).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 491616 (Florence, J. 2090).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 440421 (G.Buelow 3252).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491636 (Florence, J. 3444).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493162 (Florence, J. 3938).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493174 (Florence, J. 2873).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 640421 (Buelow, G. 3252).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 651865 (Buelow, G. 2738).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000868 (G.Buelow 2738).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553128 (Florence, j. 5518).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553651 (Florence, J. 5745).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 541738 (Florence, J. 7100).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 603952 (Cox, P.A. 1033).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 609004 (Cox, P.A. 1033).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 573737 (Herbst, D.R. 8834).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 633897 (Florence 10098).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 633943 (Florence 9997).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642429 (Florence 10416).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642919 (Florence 10228).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 637933 (McClatchey, W.C. 72).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643419 (Florence 11659).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633402 (A.K.Kepler 93-100).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Doty, Maxwell S. 1954. Floristic and Ecological Notes on Raroia Atoll, Tuamotus. Land biota: vascular plants. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 33. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 41 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1962. Vascular plants recorded from Jaluit Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 92. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 39 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1969. Wake Island vegetation and flora, 1961-1963. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 123. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. 1994. Flora of the Phoenix Islands, central Pacific. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 393. 60 pp.

Fosberg, F. Raymond. 1990. A review of the natural history of the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 330. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 100 pp.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Haselwood, E. L./Motter, G. G. 1983. Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds. Second edition, revised and expanded by Robert T. Hirano. University of Hawaii Press. 491 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lamberson, J. O. 1982. A guide to terrestrial plants of Enewetak Atoll. Pacific Science Information Center, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 73 pp.

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Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. 1975. The natural history of Namoluk Atoll, eastern Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 189. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 53 pp + photos.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

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