Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sporobolus indicus
(L.) R.Br., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Agrostis indica L.; Axonopus poiretii Roem. & Schult.; Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton; Sporobolus indicus var. major; Sporobolus poiretii (Roem. & Schult.) Hitchc.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shu wei su

Chuukese: fatil

English: dropseed, rat's tail grass, smut grass, West Indian dropseed, wire grass

Maori (Cook Islands): matie ngāngā‘ere

Spanish: esporóobolo

Tongan: fisihina

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials; culms densely tufted, erect, 5-10 dm tall, unbranched, glabrous.  Sheaths glabrous except for the ciliolate upper margin; ligule a minute ciliolate fringe, 0.1-0.3 mm long; blades 13-35 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, flat, sparsely pilose near base, otherwise glabrous.  Panicles solitary, terminal, spike-like, cylindrical, 15-33 cm long, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, branches 1-4 cm long, strongly ascending, appressed; spikelets grayish, numerous, short-pedicellate, laterally compressed, 1.5-2 mm long, usually not disarticulting; glumes unequal, first glume rounded, 0.5-1 mm long, nerveless, apex erose, second glume ovate, 0.9-1.5 mm long, faintly 1-nerved, apex acute to rounded, erose; lemma ovate, 2.1-2.5 mm long, faintly 1-nerved, glabrous, apex acute; palea membranous, 1.8-2 mm long, glabrous, nerveless, apex rounded to obtuse, slightly creased.  Fruit brown, oblong-cuboid, truncate, glistening"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1597, 1913).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, pine forests, riparian habitats, coastal scrub and dunes.  This grass is a highly variable species with several varieties within the native range.  Where invasive, the grass forms a dense cover eliminating native vegetation and preventing regeneration of shrubs and trees.  The grass produces large amounts of dead biomass promoting the occurrence of wildfires"  (Weber, 2003; p. 420).  It is a common grass in hot areas. It also grows well in environment of variable humidity (Ecoport).  "Spreads in areas where there is traffic and the soil has been compacted.  A tough, unpalatable grass that reduces pasture productivity and is particularly aggressive in wet and swampy soils"  (Motooka et al., 2003). 

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed areas, 0-1,890 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1597). In New Caledonia, "introduit depuis longtemps. Répandu et très commun comme mauvaise herbe" (MacKee, 1994; p. 63). "In fields, along roadsides, and in waste places" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 879-880).

Propagation:  "It reproduces from seeds.  Seed production is prolific and seeds are mainly dispersed by attaching to animals.  A large seed bank accumulates in the soil"  (Weber, 2003; p. 420).

Native range:  Neotropics, now widely naturalized in tropical regions (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1597).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 3329
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Lamoureux 3064
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) native
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 65)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 500, 546, 558)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/350)1691. "En RC, lo encontramos en el pasto de un único jardine del pueblo de San Juan Bautista.  Es probable que esta especie, a la vista de su capacidad invasora, se disemina y se añade a la larga lista de gramineas introducidas en el archipiélago".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
S. fertilis (Steudel) Clayton. Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58843
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 667794)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 14)
S. fertilis Vouchers cited: Moore 354 (US), Moore 355 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635217)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000080)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 588711)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 572174)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 572175)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588712)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 77)
Voucher: Flynn 7101 (PTBG, BISH, K)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81909)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 415857)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 396)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 618336)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
?
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 71)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 126930)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 614724)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664831)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432319)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Sporobolus fertilis Voucher: BMW 5746 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 504056)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588714)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 619071)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus poiretii (Roem. & Schult.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 307-308)
Vouchers cited: DA 5774, DA 8788
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126960)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 307-308)
Vouchers cited: DA 2850, DA 8653, DA 7322, DA 7838, DA 7847, DA 7858, DA 9065, DA 7724, DA 7772, DA 8438;
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 126957)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000701)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton. Voucher cited: W. L. Wagner, D. H. Lorence 6248 (BISH, PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 9175)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton. Voucher cited: K. R. Wood 6512 (PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Voucher cited: Krauss 655
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 585366)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 619016)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64922
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 15)
Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton; vouchers cited: Fosberg 64802 (US), Fosberg 64889 (US, BISH), Fosberg 64922 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 599809)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 614964)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Voucher cited: Florence 2172
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491713)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 24)
Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton; voucher cited: Sachet 925 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Vouchers cited: Moore 38, BRY 26432, BRY 26461
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642320)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38266)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 63560, BRY 26521
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607526)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 150, Grant 3648
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus (C. Linnaeus) R. Brown var. pyramidalis (A.M.F.J. Palisot) J.F. Veldkamp.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492118)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 585355)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38274)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 37)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major). Vouchers cited: Fosberg 63790 (US), Fosberg & Sachet 54596 (US), Fosberg 63774 (US), Raynal 18022 (P)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1985) (voucher ID: PTBG 41080)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3041 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492111)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 40)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 14)
as S. fertilis. Voucher cited: Sachet 2074 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus elongatus R. Brown. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7022 (PAP), J. Florence 7086 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tuamotu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3041 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus (C. Linnaeus) R. Brown var. pyramidalis (A.M.F.J. Palisot) J.F. Veldkamp. Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11168 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643960)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus (C. Linnaeus) R. Brown var. pyramidalis (A.M.F.J. Palisot) J.F. Veldkamp.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 493208)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. major (L.H. Buse) G.J. Baaijens
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. major (L.H. Buse) G.J. Baaijens. Voucher cited: J. Florence 5517 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 581517)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. major (L.H. Buse) G.J. Baaijens
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 414365)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 440202)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 440204)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 440205)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 440206)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 452153)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 588713)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649445)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000134)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1597)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1912)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1597)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1597)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll native
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. Voucher specimen)
S. fertilis. Voucher: Imada 2003-59 (BISH 697674)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 402248)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697674)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 23098)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 31248)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 89)
S. fertilis. Voucher cited: Whistler 11208.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 53)
as S. fertilis
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 63)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
S. indicus vars. creber & major
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue et très commune comme mauvaise herbe.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: Vieillard 1496
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 63)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
?S. fertilis (Steudel) Clayton
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 47)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 95)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton. Voucher: Lorence 9739 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 561285)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1075)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayt.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1161)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayt.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 31)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton. Voucher: Lorence 9834 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 128)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 428423)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10017)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayt.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton. Voucher: Lorence 9713 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3121)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 6)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 91)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Bab el Omekang Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Bkul a Chesemiich Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngchelobel Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Neco
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
S. indicus var. major. As S. fertilis. Voucher: Lorence 9871 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 164)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659852)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 69)
var. fertilis.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10770 (PAP)
Adventice
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 643161)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Bristol 2468
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 28992)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417876)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mbanika Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 1002398)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 110)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 645869)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 651852)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1000902)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1000903)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 126952)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Both S. indicus and S. indicus var. major.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15622
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 126949)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 126951)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Both S. indicus and S. indicus var. major.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 29
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 126948)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Both S. indicus and S. indicus var. major.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15991
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 126950)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Both S. indicus and S. indicus var. major.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 327, Hürlimann 647
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 429359)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1597)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-13)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 17)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 51709)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 51710)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 190930)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 573415)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Both S. indicus and S. indicus var. major.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 77)
as S. fertilis.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 8)
As Sporobolus fertilis
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 350)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Sporobolus fertilis (Steudel) Clayton. Roadsides, field margins, grassy places on hill slopes, moist ground of mountain valleys.
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 348)
As Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) W. D. Clayton
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 350)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 69)
var. fertilis
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 127)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 81)
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. major (Bse) Baaijens, common
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 350)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Sporobolus fertilis (Steudel) Clayton. Roadsides, field margins, grassy places on hill slopes, moist ground of mountain valleys.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 21)
as S. fertilis (S. indicus var. major)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
as S. fertilis (Steud.) Clayton

Comments:  The taxonomy of this species is confused. Some taxonomists list S. diander as a separate species, others say it is synonymous with S. indicus (Whistler, 1988; p. 57). Whistler (1988; p. 57) lists S. fertilis as a separate species, while the GRIN database says it is a synonym of S. indicus (L.) R. Br. var. major (Bse) Baaijens. Some authors list S. pyramidalis as a separate species (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1597) while GRIN lists it as Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. pyramidalis (P. Beauv.) Veldkamp. The combined presence in the Pacific of these species is listed above.
Includes Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. major (Büse) Baaijens (=Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton)

Control: 

Physical:  "Small individuals can be removed manually"  (Weber, 2003; p. 420).  "Short-duration, intensive grazing and measures to avoid soil compaction are probably required for economical control of the smutgrasses in pastures"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical:  "Chemical control is done by spraying with hexazinone, 2,2-DPA, or amitrole plus atrazine.  Spraying with flupropanate before seed heads appear gives good selective control"  (Weber, 2003; p. 420).  "Sensitive to glyphosate.  Wipe-on applications suppress dropseed without injuring lower-growing plants"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 23 APR 2011.