Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sporobolus africanus
(Poir.) Robyns & Tournay, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. capensis Engl.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: African dropseed, Parramatta grass, rat's tail grass, rattail grass, smut grass, tufty grass

Mangarevan: aretu

Niuean: motie hikutaha

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials; culms sparsely to densely tufted, wiry, 3-10 dm tall.  Sheaths 4-12 cm long, compressed, pilose at throat and along margins but otherwise glabrous; ligule ciliate, less than 0.2 mm long; blades flat to weakly involute, 10-25 cm long, 2-5 mm wide at base, glabrous, apex attenuate.  Panicles 15-25 cm long, erect, spike-like, sometimes interrupted at base, branches short, closely appressed; spikelets (1.5-) 2-2.8 mm long, glabrous; first glume oblong, 0.4-0.7 mm long, apex obtuse, second glume ovate, 1-1.5 mm long, apex acute; lemma oblong to lanceolate, ca. 2 mm long, faintly 3-nerved, hyaline, apex obtuse to acute; palea as long as lemma.  Fruit dark red, obovate, 1.2-1.5 mm long, apex obtuse to truncate, readily separating from the spikelet but often adhering to the panicle for some time after maturity by the mucilaginous pericarp" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1596, 1912).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed areas such as along roadsides and in grasslands and pastures, 150-2,440 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1596).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Africa (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1596).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"This species is common in open areas and on grassy slopes, often indicating that the pasture is overgrazed". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1548 (A, K), L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1286 (K, NSW), R.D. Hoogland 8655 (CANB)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"This species is common in open areas and on grassy slopes, often indicating that the pasture is overgrazed". Vouchers cited: M. Lazarides 8064 (CANB, K), P.S. Green 1409 (A, K), W. Laing (CHR)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: St. John 14534 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: St. John 14796 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. L'Helguen 016
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42500)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Tounay
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler. Voucher cited: J. Florence 12065 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 663572)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (C. Linnaeus) R. Brown var. capensis H.G.A. Engler
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Voucher cited: Krauss 1657
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler. Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11639 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643042)
Taxon name on voucher: Sporobolus indicus (C. Linnaeus) R. Brown var. capensis H.G.A. Engler
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10253 (PAP), J. Florence 10301 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   University of California (2006)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 925 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26432, BRY 26461
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler, voucher cited: J. Florence 10434 (PAP); as var. africanus (Poiret) Jovet & Guedés, voucher cited: P. Morat 6943 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 106)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Vouchers cited: Gagne 1562, Fosberg & Sachet 54558, Fosberg 61099
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10104 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler. Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11212 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sporobolus indicus var. capensis H.G. Engler.
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1596)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Warren KAH-90-6 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1596)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1596)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1596)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1596)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1596)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 531)
"Coastal in pasture, and in grassland on sunny hill slopes, and on cliffs, also in scrub, waste land and on roadsides".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 176-177)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 458)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 252)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168787, CHR 168788, CHR 168789
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9936 (BISH)
"A weedy species in dooryards and waste areas".
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 8)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 531)
"Coastal in pasture, and in grassland on sunny hill slopes, and on cliffs, also in scrub, waste land and on roadsides".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 350)
As Sporobolus capensis (Willd.) Kunth


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This page was created on 16 JUN 2005 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.