Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Spondias purpurea
L., Anacardiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: hog plum, jocote, purple mombin, red mombin, Spanish plum

French: mombin rouge, prune d'Espagne

Spanish: ciruela española, ciruelo, ovito

Habit:  tree

Description:  "The purple mombin may be a shrub or low-branched small tree in lowlands, or a spreading, thick-trunked tree reaching 25 or even 50 ft (7.5-15 m) in highlands. The branches are thickish and brittle. The deciduous, alternate, compound leaves bright-red or purple when young; 4 3/4 to 10 in (12-25 cm) long when mature; have 5 to 19 nearly sessile, obovate to lanceolate or oblong-elliptic leaflets 3/4 to 1 1/2 in (2-4 cm) long; oblique toward the base and faintly toothed toward the apex. The tiny, 4- to 5-petalled flowers, male, female and bisexual, are red or purple and borne in short, hairy panicles along the branches before the leaves appear. Somewhat plumlike, the fruits, borne singly or in groups of 2 or 3, may be purple, dark- or bright-red, orange, yellow, or red-and-yellow. They vary from 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) in length and may be oblong, oval, obovoid or pear-shaped, with small indentations and often a knob at the apex. The skin is glossy and firm; the flesh aromatic, yellow, fibrous, very juicy, with a rich, plum-like, subacid to acid flavor, sometimes a trifle turpentiney; and it adheres to the rough, fibrous, hard, oblong, knobby, thick, pale stone, which is 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) long and contains up to 5 small seeds" (Morton, 1987; pp. 242-245).

Habitat/ecology:  "The tree is tropical, ranging from sea-level to 5,500 or 6,000 ft (1,700-1,800 m) in Mexico and Central America; to 2,500 ft (760 m) in Jamaica, in either dry or humid regions" (Morton, 1987; pp. 242-245).

"A native of tropical America and naturalized throughout the tropics, where it is commonly cultivated for its edible fruit; in the Galápagos it is an escape from cultivation" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 519-520).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mexico and Central America; widely naturalized in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Richer de Forges in MacKee 42922, Sakiman in MacKee 43000
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 471)
Cultivated.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52183 (US)


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This page was created on 19 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 1 SEP 2012.