Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Spondias mombin
L., Anacardiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Spondias lutea L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: ambarella, ashanti plum, golden apple, hogplum, Jamaica plum, jobo, Spanish plum, thorny hog plum, hog plum, yellow mombin

French: mombin, mombin à fruits jaunes, mombin franc, mombin jaune, prune d'or, prune mombine, prunier mombin, prunier myrobolan

Maori (Cook Islands): māpera, māpēra, māpēra, marbel

Palauan: mesehezl, mesehzl

Spanish: choco, ciruela agria, ciruela amarilla, jobo, jocote, mango ciruelo, marapa, ubos

Tahitian: vi popa‘a

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Jobo...is recognized by: (1) numerous spinelike projections 1/4-3/4 inch long on the thick, corky bark of the trunk; (2) a very spreading yellow-green crown, usually with few nearly horizontal branches; (3) pinnate leaves 8-16 inches or more in length with 9-19 asymmetrical ovate or lance-shaped, short or long-pointed, thin leaflets; (4) numerous small, fragrant, yellowish-white, 5-parted flowers nearly 1/4 inch across in showy branched terminal clusters; and (5) clusters of yellow, cylindrical, soft, juicy fruits 1 1/4-1 1/2 inches long and 3/4-1 inch in diameter, edible though inferior.

"A small to medium-sized deciduous tree to 60 feet in height and 2 1/2 feet in trunk diameter.  The whitish-brown or gray bark is smoothish except for numerous spine-like projections 1/4-3/4 inch high, becoming rough and furrowed.  Inner bark is light pink and  slightly bitter.  A resin exudes from cuts.  The stout twigs are hairless or finely hairy.  The alternate leaves have slender and finely hairy axes.  The leaflets are more or less paired except for the terminal one, on stalks 1/8-1/4 inch long.  Leaflet blades are 2-4 inches long and 1-1 3/4 inches broad, short-pointed or rounded and oblique at base, the edges not toothed or slightly wavy, yellow-green on upper surface and paler beneath.  The spreading flower clusters (panicles) are 6-12 inches or more in length, with flowers on short stalks 1/16 inch or more in length.  Flowers are male or female and bisexual on the same tree (polygamous). The minute hairy calyx is 5-lobed; there are 5 yellowish-white petals nearly 1/8 inch long, spreading and curved back; 10 stamens; and pistil on a disk, composed of ovary and 4 styles. The pleasantly odorous fruits (drupes) have a thin yellow edible flesh with slightly sour pungent taste and a large few-seeded stone about 1 inch long" (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; pp. 294-295).

Habitat/ecology:  In Puerto Rico, "along roadsides and fence rows and in pastures and forests in the coastal, moist limestone, and lower mountain regions" (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; pp. 294-295).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Throughout West Indies except Bahamas and from southern Mexico to Peru and Brazil, in part cultivated or naturalized.  Planted in southern Florida.  Also in Old World tropics, perhaps introduced (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; pp. 294-295).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 147)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D. Baré 132 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: C.L. Cartier 115 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: BRY 26408
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 4)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2457 (PAP), J. Florence 2457b (PAP)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 43)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 22935)
Taxon name on voucher: Spondias mombin L.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 147)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: J. Bernier 210, Dambreville in MacKee 23286, MacKee 23318
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 147)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
Little, Elbert L./Wadsworth, Frank H. (1964) (p. 294)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 349)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Little, Elbert L./Wadsworth, Frank H. (1964) (p. 294)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
Little, Elbert L./Wadsworth, Frank H. (1964) (p. 294)

Comments:  Reported as possibly an invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.


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This page was created on 21 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 31 OCT 2011.