Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Sphagneticola trilobata
(L.) Pruski, Asteraceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Thelechitonia trilobata (L.) H. Rob. & Cautrec.; Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chuukese: atiat

English: creeping ox-eye, Singapore daisy, trailing daisy, wedelia

Kosraean: rosrangrang

Marshallese: ut mõkadkad, ut telia

Palauan: ngesil ra ngebard

Pohnpeian: dihpwoangoahng suwed, ngkahu, tuhke ongohng

Tongan: ‘anselmo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Creeping, mat-forming perennial herbs; stems rounded, rooting at the nodes, 1-3 (-4) dm long, the flowering portions ascending, coarsely strigose to spreading hirsute, sometimes subglabrous.  Leaves fleshy, usually 4-9 cm long, (1.5-) 2-5 cm wide, irregularly toothed or serrate, usually with a pair of lateral lobes.  Peduncles 3-10 cm long; involucre campanulate-hemispherical, ca. 1 cm high; chaffy bracts lanceolate, rigid; ray florets often 8-13 per head, rays 6-15 mm long; disk corollas 4-5 mm long; pappus a crown of short fimbriate scales.  Achenes tuberculate, 4-5 mm long, few achenes maturing in cultivated plants in Hawai‘i"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 373-374).

Habitat/ecology:  "The plant thrives in open areas with well-drained, moist soil, but it can tolerate dry periods" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998). Open areas with well-drained soil up to 700 m or more in elevation (up to 1300 m in French Polynesia). A noxious weed in agricultural areas, along roadsides and trails, in open lots, waste places and garbage dumps and other disturbed sites. Also naturalized and invasive along streams, canals, along the borders of mangroves and in coastal strand vegetation. (Thaman, 1999) Forms a dense ground cover, crowding out or preventing regeneration of other species. Cultivated as an ornamental.

"In the wet tropics region of northern Queensland [Australia], the plant is becoming increasingly common along the edges of rainforests, on roadsides and other disturbed areas.  In south-east Queensland and coastal north New South Wales, it has invaded riparian vegetation and disturbed areas of coastal sand dunes."  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 201).

Propagation:  Usually vegetatively, but Bill Sykes reports observing mature achenes on plants (pers. com.). Stems form new plants where they touch the ground and pieces readily take root. Commonly spread by dumping of garden waste.

Native range:  "Mexico, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean; now grown almost worldwide in tropical and other warm places"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 165).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. Field notes.)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 38)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83847)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 48583)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 7)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593395)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593620)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 13)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 13)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 665083)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665339)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665340)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633457)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 153 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 6)
Voucher: BMW 5762 (BISH, BRI)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7864 (PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687682)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21073)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24672)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3823 (NY), M.J. Balick 3856 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4028 (NY, PTBG), T.W. Flynn 6255 (AD, NY, PTBG, US), D.H. Lorence 8057 (MO, NY, PTBG, US)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 505203)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 33554)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola triloba (L.) Pruski
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2026) (voucher ID: PTBG 34871)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola triloba (L.) Pruski
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24622)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27787)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 293)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R. (1999) (p. 3)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7432 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9507 (PAP),
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 545498)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601880)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000349)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000350)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1002250)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4133 (PAP), J. Florence 4193 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558046)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39490)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood & S.P. Perlman 6403 (PAP)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28584)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11711 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 649993)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Florence 2126
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2126 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 492782)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 82)
Vouchers cited: BRY 24831, BRY 25408
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10420 (PAP), J. Florence 3495 (PAP), J. Florence 3681 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491380)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 644386)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 19)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 19)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 54)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1967 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 82)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 599630)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 293)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 210)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Moore 58195 (US, BISH)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438141)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: C. Imada & T. Cummings 99-14 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 373-374, 1864)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 373-374, 1864)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 373-374, 1864)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (pp. 20-21)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H100633 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H120650 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 4)
Vouchers cited: (West Maui) Oppenheimer H99927 (BISH), Oppenheimer H80013 (BISH); (East Maui) Flynn & From 2543 (BISH), Oppenheimer & J. Price H30007 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 373-374, 1864)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (pp. 20-21)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H110606 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H120616 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H120630 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 373-374, 1864)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 373-374, 1864)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 12)
Voucher: Imada 2003-65 (BISH 697680)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697680)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (pp. 9, 12)
Voucher: Imada 2003-40 (BISH 697655)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697655)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 293)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 210)
Voucher cited: Lamberson 29 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 293)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 48067, Whistler 11211
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 210)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58067 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43931)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 5)
"Common; around homes, in former Agriculture station, escaping into ruderal areas ".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0630200904
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 72)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A11)
Occasional; near runway, by some residences and other buildings on Mili.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0515200909
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49776)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 102)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58609 (US), Hassall 237 (SUVA)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 210)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58609 (US)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 28336, MacKee 41221
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 655114)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 8)
Subject of eradication program.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 1001361)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 87)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 610707)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 610717)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 611191)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 650941)
Taxon name on voucher: Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 1000102)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9570)
Taxon name on voucher: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Nukunonu Atoll introduced
invasive
? (year unknown)
Mike Thorsen, pers. com.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R. (1999)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 373-374, 1864)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 201)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 201)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 290)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
As Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 81)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Occasionally naturalized on slopes and along roadsides at lower elevations".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 131)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  This species was previously widely known as Wedelia trilobata.

Becoming established on Niue (Space & Flynn, 2000). Established at several places on Tongatapu, Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001). Planted and naturalizing at a number of locations throughout Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002). Becoming established on Rarotonga and a single cultivated location on ‘Atiu, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Can cause itching or contact dermatitis if handled and is a hazard to children and pets  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 165).

Control: 

Physical:  "Physical removal can be effective if used repeatedly for an extended period, but is very labor intensive"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 27).

Chemical:  "Sensitive to dicamba and 2,4-D, but probably best at a minimum of 2 lb/acre.  Sensitive to triclopyr in crop oil applied by the drizzle method but probably at 2 lb/acre or more"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  "Herbicides such as triclopyr (Garlon 4) or glyphosate (Roundup) can be used as a foliar spray"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 27).

"Here in Queensland, Australia Wedelia has become a widespread problem plant. A metsulfuron methyl herbicide (600g/kg) has been registered for spraying the weed. The mixing rate is 10g/100L of water plus a surfactant. This gives good control, but it is important to follow-up with touch up treatments to pick up the underground stems which were missed first time round."  (Greg Brown, Queensland Department of Natural Resources, communications to Aliens listserver).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).

Additional online information about Sphagneticola trilobata is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Sphagneticola trilobata as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Sphagneticola trilobata may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1991. Voucher specimen #BNM1991(Herbst, Stemmermann & Canfield 9570).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 83847 (Whistler, W.A. W 330).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 599630 (Sachet, M.-H. 1967).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438141 (Fosberg, F.R. 58195).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 505203 (Fosberg, F.R. 60455).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 492782 (Florence, J. 2126).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491380 (Florence, J. 3495).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 558046 (Florence, J. 4133).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 593395 (Herbst, D.R. 6760).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 593620 (Herbst, D.R. 6930).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 545498 (Florence, J. 7432).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 601880 (Florence 9507).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000349 (W.L.Wagner 6135).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000350 (W.L.Wagner 6172).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 1002250 (Florence 9507).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 644386 (Florence 10420).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 665083 (Sykes, W.R. 467850).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 610707 (Herbst, D.R. 9570).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 610717 (Herbst, D.R. 9511).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 611191 (Herbst, D.R. 9570).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 665339 (Sykes, W.R. 474388).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 665340 (Sykes, W.R. 474402).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000102 (Herbst, D.R. 9511).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 649993 (Florence 11711).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 655114 (Koyama, H. 8228).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 1001361 (A.K.Kepler 92-49).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633457 (A.K.Kepler 93-56).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 650941 (Singeo, Y. LR26656).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2000. Voucher specimen #BISH 687682 (Waterhouse, B.M. BMW5762).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2003. Voucher specimen #BISH 697655 (C.Imada 2003-40).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2003. Voucher specimen #BISH 697680 (C.Imada 2003-65).

Ching-I Peng, ed. 2013. Digital flora of Taiwan (online resource).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Englberger, Konrad. 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei. 29 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. 1980. Noteworthy Micronesian plants 4. Micronesica 16(2):201-210.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. 2000. New Hawaiian plant records for 1999. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 63:9-16.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1997. Voucher specimen #PTBG33554(M. J. Balick 3856).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2026. Voucher specimen #PTBG34871(M. J. Balick 4028).

Oppenheimer, Hank. 2007. New plant records from Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i for 2006. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96:17-34.

Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. 2002. New plant records from the main Hawaiian Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:1-14.

Sachet, M.-H. 1983. Botanique de l'ile de Tupai, Iles de la Societe. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 276. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 26 pp. + photos.

Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. 1983. An ecological reconnaissance of Tetiaroa Atoll, Society Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 275. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 67 pp. + photos.

Santos, Ioanis. 1998. Wedelia trilobata on Pohnpei. Aliens 7:3.

Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. Report to the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 32 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 103 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane. 2000. Invasive plant species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 31 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 908 pp.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Thaman, R. R. 1999. Wedelia trilobata: Daisy invader of the Pacific Islands. IAS Technical Report 99/2. Institute of Applied Science, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. 12 pp.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2007. Arno plants [preliminary working listing of plant species]. Unpublished checklist, 13 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2009. Specimens from Likiep, Majuro, Wotje and Arno (unpublished checklist). 4 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2010. Survey of Invasive Plant Species and Other Plants of Mili Atoll, Marshall Islands. USDA Forest Resource Management Grant Program. Unpublished report. 6 pp, plus tabulation of plants of Mili Atoll, 23 pp.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.