Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Spermacoce remota
Lam., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Borreria laevis sensu various authors; Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: guang ye feng hua cao

English: buttonweed, woodland false buttonweed

Other: shiumwit

Palauan: okula beluu

Spanish: botoncillo, hierba de toro, tabaquillo

Woleaian: opusal

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or short-lived perennial herbs; stems often purple-tinged, erect or sprawling, 3-10 dm long, glabrous or sparsely retrorsely puberulent in lines on the angles.  Leaves often purple-tinged, opposite, narrowly elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or ovate, 1-7 cm long, 0.4-3 cm wide, glabrous except puberulent near margins, giving a slightly scabrid texture, apex acute to attenuate-acute, base rounded to cuneate, petioles 2-4 mm long, stipules 2-3 mm long, with 5-7 slender, unequal setae 2-5 mm long, stipules of flower-bearing nodes with numerous setae.  Flowers numerous in axillary and terminal, dense, sessile clusters, stipule-derived bracteoles with setae 2-3 mm long; hypanthium obconical, 2-2.5 mm long; calyx lobes deltate, ca. 0.6 mm long, ciliate, separated by a fringe; corolla white or lobes tinged pink, 2.4-2.6 mm long.  Fruit ellipsoid or obovoid-fusiform, 2-4 mm long, pubescent in upper part, dehiscent, the valves bifid, falling completely away. Seeds dull dark brown, oblong-ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 mm long, transversely sulcate" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1172-1173).

A key to some Spermacoce species (adapted from Lorence & Flynn, 2006; pp. 4-5):

1.  Mature seed surface with deep transverse grooves, the surface between grooves foveolate:  Spermacoce remota [=Spermacoce assurgens].
1.  Mature seeds with surface variously sculptured but not transversely grooved:  2

2(1).  Calyx lobes consistently 2:  Spermacoce exilis
2.       Calyx lobes 4 (occasionally 2-3 in some flowers of Spermacoce prostrata):  3

3(2).  Leaves, at least the lower ones, distinctly petiolate with petioles 5-10 mm long; corolla tube c. 4-5 mm long; capsule (excluding calyx) 2.5-3.0 mm long; seeds 2.0-2.6 mm long:  Spermacoce latifolia
3.      Leaves sessile or the lower ones with petioles 1-3 (5) mm long; corolla tube 0.5 mm long; capsule (excluding calyx) 1-2 mm long; seeds 0.7-1.8 mm long:  4

4(3).  Calyx lobes 4 (occasionally 2-3 in some flowers), 0.5-0.7 mm long, deltate to narrowly deltate with green midrib and broad pale margins; capsule 1.0-1.1 mm long; seeds 0.7-0.9 mm long, deep purplish-brown, dorsal surface with fewer than 8 vertical rows of deep, circular-rimmed pits:  Spermacoce prostrata
4.      Calyx lobes 4, 0.4-1.1 mm long, narrowly deltate to linear-subulate with green midrib and narrow pale margins; capsule 1.2-2.0 mm long; seeds 1-1.8 mm long, chestnut to purplish-brown, dorsal surface with more than 10 vertical rows of minute, shallow pits:  Spermacoce ovalifolia

Habitat/ecology:  "Along trails, in clearings, and in uncrowded grassy areas throughout much of tropical America from sea level to 1,500 m or higher where sufficient moisture is available; a common weed in many areas" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 424-425). "A weed of gardens, lawns, roadsides and disturbed areas. Weed of plantations, cultivation and pastures. Tolerant of moist and dry climates.  Locally abundant, 0-1200 m altitude" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 87-88).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and often common in urban areas, along roadsides, and other low elevation disturbed sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1172-1173).  In Fiji, "occurring between sea level and 850 m elevation as an abundantly naturalized weed on grassy slopes, along roadsides, and in villages, canefields, and gardens" (Smith, 1988; pp. 373-374).  "Common in croplands and disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 35). In Papua New Guinea, "a common and widespread plant of grassland, stream sides, forest clearings and roadsides; a weed of gardens and pasture. From low altittudes to at least 1200 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 143). In Tonga, "rather frequent as a weed in waste areas and clearings" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 259). In New Caledonia, "sous ces noms sont citées des plantes répandues comme mauvaises herbes de cultures, pelouses et terrains vagues" (MacKee, 1994; p. 123).

Propagation:  "Seeds dispersed by water, slashing equipment, cultivation" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 87-88).

Native range:  Florida south to Central and South America and the West Indies, now widely naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1172-1173).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3482
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 54)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34832)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 1308
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34743)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 10509)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 3376, Bryan s.n.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 37247)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 66)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 66)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Albany Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Wolf Island
Wolf Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 118)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 60174 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5751 (BISH, DNA)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 23)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5783 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 132)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 61 (NY, PTBG), E. Albert 203 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58429 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 7915 (PTBG), B.M. Waterhouse BMW5783 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21143)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota Ruiz & Pavon
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43725)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43734)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 373-374)
Voucher cited: Bryan 571
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 373-374)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 908
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 373-374)
Voucher cited: Smith 7473
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 373-374)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4400.3
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 373-374)
Vouchers cited: DA 10470, DA 10767
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 373-374)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 983
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 373-374)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 151, DA 9738, Smith 4319, DA 10416, DA 10180, Smith 9444, DA 9521, DA 10006, Gillespie 3424, DA 10622, Meebold 16690
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 250)
Voucher cited: BRY 26403
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 250)
Voucher cited: Florence 9792
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9792 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11420 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11122 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 24061)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1172-1173)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1172-1173)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40116 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1172-1173)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70111 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1172-1173)
Voucher cited: Degener 27707 (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 78)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 11001)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 75)
Voucher: Imada 2003-41 (BISH 697656)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 11)
"Uncommon; grassy and ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 65)
Vouchers cited: Herbst 8904, Herbst 8981, Herbst 9094, Whistler 11172, Whistler 11253
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 44944)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 44983)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 11)
"Common; in lawns and ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 121)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A20)
Common; around homes, on runway and in ruderal areas. Voucher 0726201007 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200914
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 190)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 2 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 123)
Voucher cited: MacKee 27243
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 123)
Vouchers cited: Cribs 766, Schlechter 14814, Franc1381, MacKee 2139, MacKee 25267, Sévenet 1004, Toutain 3431 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Ouen introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 123)
Voucher cited: Buchholz 1681
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 175)
As Borreria laevis sensu auct. non (Lam.) Griesb. Voucher cited: CHR 170395
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 35)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 44)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 114)
As Borreria laevis sensu auct. non (Lam.) Griesb. Voucher cited: Yuncker 9881 (BISH)
"A weed in clearings and waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 47)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 110)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Canfield, Joan E. (1980) (p. 199)
Voucher cited: Canfield 181 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 907)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce assurgens R. & P.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 105)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 99)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 99)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 99)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 277-278)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 107)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Canfield, Joan E. (1980) (p. 199)
Voucher cited: Canfield 425 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Voucher: Lorence 9751 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 43)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngchus Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngchus Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngemelis Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Voucher: Lorence 9865 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngemelis Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 158)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce assurgens
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Canfield, Joan E. (1980) (p. 199)
Voucher cited: Canfield 539 (US)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1337)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce assurgens R. & P.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeremdiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 87-88)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 143)
As Borreria laevis (Lamk) Griseb. From low altitudes to at least 1200 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 87-88)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 35)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 110)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 66)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 287, Soakai 551
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 66)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 77
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 35)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 259)
"Rather frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 66)
Voucher cited: Soakai 335
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 259)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15428
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 66)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 17, Ilolahia 22, Soakai 169
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 259)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15007
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 351)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 66)
Voucher cited: Soakai 877
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 66)
Voucher cited: Soakai 737
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Alofi Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 37)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 35)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized in disturbed wet sites; below 100-300 m. Guangdong.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 87-88)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Mapia Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 118)
Voucher cited: Vink 12087 (L)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
As Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 87-88)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 81)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized in disturbed wet sites; below 100-300 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 87-88)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 87-88)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 128)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 87-88)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 8)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
As Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pavon
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 23860)
Taxon name on voucher: Spermacoce remota


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This page was created on 7 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 8 FEB 2010.