Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Spathoglottis plicata
Blume, Orchidaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zi hua bao she lan

English: fernland orchid, Malayan ground orchid, Philippine ground orchid, Solomon Islands orchid

Niuean: pupukale

Samoan: o‘o, o‘o

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect, terrestrial perennial herbs 3-15 dm tall, pseudobulbs crowded along and obscuring rhizome, ovoid, 2-4 (-6) cm long, completely surrounded by the persistent fibrous leaf bases.  Leaves 2-6 per pseudobulb, conspicuously plicate, linear-lanceolate, 20-150 cm long, (0.8-) 2.5-8 cm wide, veins conspicuously raised on lower surface, margins entire, apex narrowly acuminate, base long-attenuate.  Flowers dark purple to pale pink or rarely white, in erect, racemose inflorescences arising from the pseudobulb, 1.5-15 dm long, bracts green to greenish purple, erect, becoming reflexed with age; sepals and petals similar, spreading, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 1.5-2 cm long; labellum distinctly 3-lobed, lateral lobes erect or ascending, linear-obovate, 0.8-1.2 cm long, middle lobe horizontal or ascending, distinctly clawed, 1.2-1.5 cm long, the calluses 3-4 mm high, deeply 2-lobed, the lobes bright yellow with pink markings; column dark purple to white, narrowly clavate, 12-15 mm long, slightly winged along lateral edges near stigma; rostellum thin, 1-1.5 mm long.  Capsules cylindrical, 6-ribbed, 3.5-4 cm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1476).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open, disturbed, usually grassy areas in mesic to wet forest, 0-640 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1476).  In Fiji, "as found in apparently natural habitats, occurs along roads, in open hillside thickets, and in forest openings from near sea level to about 800 m."  (Smith, 1991; p. 481).  In Niue, "it grows all through the fernland and in clearings and scrub on the margins of this region, but rarely occurs in the forest"  (Sykes, 1970; pp. 263-264).  In Taiwan, "Sunny places at forest margins, grassy slopes"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "This widespread species is believed to occur naturally from India and southeastern Asia throughout Malesia to the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, and also in Tonga, Niue, and Samoa. It is commonly cultivated as a garden ornamental elsewhere" (Smith, 1991; p. 481).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 481)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 127)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 24)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 127)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 24)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island uncertain if native
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Perhaps introduced and naturalised
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island uncertain if native
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Perhaps introduced and naturalised
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island uncertain if native
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Perhaps introduced and naturalised
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 9)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 52)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 481)
Voucher cited: Smith 1823
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 481)
Vouchers cited: Smith 6035, Degener 15212, Smith 9352, DA 16948 (cult.), Kores & Molvray F32, H.B.R. & B.F.H Parham 1 (cult.), H.B.R. Parham 1a
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: D. H. Lorence, L. M. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood, J.-Y. Meyer 9001 (P, PAP, PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence, S.P. Perlman, W.L. Wagner 9594 (BISH, P), W.L. Wagner, D.H. Lorence 6229 (BISH, P, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: L. M. Dunn 204 (P, PAP, PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: D. H. Lorence, L. D. Dunn, K. R. Wood, T. Teikiehuupoo 9105 (P, PAP, PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12123 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11562 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg & M. Mount 64983 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2153 (PAP), J. Florence 4762 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 251 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3410 (PAP), J. Florence 3487 (PAP), J. Florence 8983 (PAP), P. Morat 7011 (PAP), J. Florence 10412 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 63432 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2739 (PAP), J. Florence 3180 (PAP), J. Florence 8148 (PAP), J. Florence 8779 (PAP), J. Everett & M. Guérin 1506 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 162)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 127)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 24)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1476)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1476)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1476)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1476)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1476)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1476)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 47)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 481)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 263-264)
Voucher cited: CHR 150584
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 481)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 481)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15929
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Vouchers cited: Scarth-Johnson 27, Hotta 4375, Hotta 4387, Sykes 511, Sykes 552, Sykes 553
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Vouchers cited: Lister s.n., Hurlimann 223, Yuncker 15437, Yuncker 15669, Hotta 5284 (cf. 5243), Hotta 533a (n.s.), Whistler 6472, Whistler 7422
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Voucher cited: Graeffe (n.s.)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Vouchers cited: Hotta 4472, Hotta 4811, Buelow & Sykes 215
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Vouchers cited: Buelow 2070, Whistler 6430
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 431, Buelow 1185, Whistler 6241
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 95)
Voucher cited: Crosby 247
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Northern Queensland
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 80)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 10 AUG 2011 and was last updated on 19 AUG 2011.