Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Solanum pseudocapsicum
L., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shan hu yin

English: false Jerusalem cherry, Jerusalem cherry, Madeira cherry, Madeira winter-cherry, winter-cherry

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Erect shrubs up to 1.5 m tall, unarmed, glabrous or sparsely pubescent with simple or dendritic hairs on young growth, later glabrate.  Leaves simple, alternate, elliptic to lanceolate, often 5-8 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, margins entire, often undulate, apex acute to acuminate, base cuneate and somewhat decurrent to petiole, petioles 5-12 mm long.  Flowers perfect, actinomorphic, solitary or few on short common peduncles 5-10 mm long, often leaf-opposed, pedicels ca. 1 cm long; calyx tubular, 2-3 mm long, the lobes long-triangular, 2-3 mm long; corolla white, rotate-stellate, ca. 1 cm long; stamens inserted near base of corolla tube; filaments ca. 0.5 mm long, glabrous; anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm long, opening by apical slits; ovary globose; style 1, erect, exceeding anthers; stigma terminal.  Berries 1-2 developing per cyme, bright orangish red, succulent, globose, erect on pedicels, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, calyx somewhat enlarged.  Self-compatible"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1274).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, riparian habitats.  Where native, this plant is common in grassland, thickets, and disturbed places.  Where invasive, it becomes abundant and forms dense patches that crowd out native plants and prevent the regeneration of shrubs and trees.  Little is known on the ecology of this plant"  (Weber, 2003; p. 408).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed sites in mesic forest, grassy pastures, along seasonal streams, and in open or shaded woods, 600-2,100 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1274).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Probably native to eastern Argentina, but widely and early cultivated as an ornamental and now naturalized in many warm temperate and tropical areas worldwide" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1274).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1274)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1274)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1274)
Voucher cited: Hillebrand s.n. (BM)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1274)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 133)
Voucher cited: H. Brinon 10 (NOU)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in China.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 220)
Ornamental.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1249)
"Garden escape in and around hedgerows, plantations, remnant forest stands and shady waste places".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Persistent after cultivation, ca. 1,000 m altitude".

Control: 

Physical:  "Hand pull all but the largest plants (all year round). Leave on site to rot down.

Chemical:  1. Weed wipe (spring-autumn): triclopyr 600 EC or Tordon Gold (333ml /L). 
2. Spray small plants (spring-autumn): 2,4-D ester (70ml/10L). 
3. Spray plants over 30 cm tall (spring-autumn): glyphosate (10ml/L) or Tordon Gold (600ml/100L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 22 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.