Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Solanum nigrum
Cav., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: long kui

English: black nightshade, blackberry nightshade, nightshade, poisonberry

Fijian: boro ni veiwere, boro ni yaloki ni gata, malahome

Filipino: kamakamatisan, kunti, malasili

French: brède martin, crève-chien, morelle noire

Japanese: inuhōzuki

Mangarevan: tutai kiore

Niuean: polokai

Other: aubru, obrew, obro

Samoan: magalo, māgalo, magalogalo, magalogalo, polo, polo, polo vao

Spanish: hierba mora, llague, pintamora, tomatillo, tomatito de moro, tomatitos, trompillo, yerba mora

Tongan: polo kai

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herb, glabrous or slightly pubescent; hairs if present simple (not stellate); leaves ovate to lanceolate thin, flexible, entire or obscurely toothed, acute, at base somewhat asymmetrically obtuse or rounded and decurrent; petiole to 3 cm long; blades to 10 cm long; inflorescence supra-axillary, shorter than leaf, several-flowered; flowers 7 mm wide, nodding; calyx campanulate, the obtuse 1 mm lobes becoming reflexed; corolla white or yellowish, lobes 2.5 mm long; stamens 2.5 mm long, yellow; anthers poricidal; ovary glabrous but the style puberulent; berry glabrous, purple-black, juicy, about 6 mm diameter, many-seeded; seeds flat, 1.5 x 1 mm"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 521-522).

Habitat/ecology:  "A common weed in gardens, fields, waste areas and open forests.  It is mainly a weed of moist environments, and thrives in areas of low rainfall only where the land is under irrigation.  It is best adapted to soils of high fertility, especially those high in nitrogen and phosphorus"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 430).  "Occasional in disturbed places and croplands, but is not usually a dominant species where it occurs" (Whistler, 1983; p. 67).

In Guam, "in waste ground and newly cultivated soil; weedy but not especially troublesome"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 521-522).  In Niue, "a very common weed in plantations and other areas of disturbed ground" (Sykes, 1970; pp. 197-198). In New Guinea, "a weed of cultivation and waste land, in pasture about yards and tress. From low altitudes to 3000 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 150). In Tonga, "frequent...as a plantation weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 238). In New Caledonia, "naturalisé depuis longtemps et largement répandu" (MacKee, 1994; p. 132).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "The plant reproduces from seed, of which as many as 178,000 per plant may be produced" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 430).  "Seeds are dispersed by birds and small mammals"  (Weber, 2003; p. 407).

Native range:  A native of Europe (Holm et al., 1977; p. 430).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Garber 976 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Garber 597 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 3)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 53)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 208)
subsp. nigrum
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
"An introduced, widespread and cosmopolitan weed". Voucher cited: A.N. Rodd 1821 (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Cuevas, Jaime G./Marticorena, Alicia/Cavieres, Lohengrin A. (2004) (p. 537)
Voucher cited: CONC 158068, JF 303
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: St. John 14659 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 143)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 143)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 143)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg & B.C. Stone 61328 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5728 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6321 (PAP)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 521-522)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Récifs D'Entrecasteaux (D'Entrecasteaux Reefs)
Île Surprise introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: Blanchon 431
New Caledonia
Hunter Island
Île Hunter introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: Veillon 3402 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: Blanchon 1531
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45863
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
Renevier, Alain/Cherrier, Jean-Francois (1991) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 44060
New Caledonia
Matthew Island
Île Matthew introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Vouchers cited: Hmakone & Sam in MacKee 25831, Kusser in MacKee 26788
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 383)
Naturalisé depuis longtemps et largement répandue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 1028, Balansa 523, de Pompéry s.n., Bougier 20, MacKee 17349
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 32932)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum nigrum L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 4129)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum nigrum
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: Pancher 605
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Cheeseman Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 144)
Perhaps a natural introduction from New Zealand by birds.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Curtis Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 144)
Perhaps a natural introduction from New Zealand by birds.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Macauley Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 144)
Perhaps a natural introduction from New Zealand by birds.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 758)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum nigrum L.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 150)
From low altitudes to 3000 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 427-428)
In open waste places, recently disturbed soil, etc., from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 m.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 50)
Vouchers cited: Ross 56, R. A. Young 29, St. John 15044, Fosberg & R. Clark 11337
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 435)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 432)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 432)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 220)
In wasteland or along roadside.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 432)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 432-433)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 432-433)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 432-433)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 432)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 341-342)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 432)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1247)
"Generally abundant, especially in open places such as arable land, waste places, dry riverbeds and roadsides, particularly much-disturbed areas".
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 432, 434)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 432)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 432)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"A common weed of cultivation, 600-3000 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 157)
"Seen by Wiehe in 1939".
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 432, 434)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 155)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3093 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Gwynne & Wood 1018 (EA)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Desnoeufs Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 210)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 61)
Vouchers cited: Procter 4149, Robertson 2718
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 195)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 163)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3015 (K)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and small plants can be hand pulled.  Mowing or cutting is used to prevent seed formation".

Chemical:  "Effective herbicides are atrazine, dicamba or 2,4-D"  (Weber, 2003; p. 407).


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 21 JAN 2011.