Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Solanum mammosum
L., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ru qie

English: nipple fruit

French: pomme zombi

Samoan: lapiti, lapiti

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Annual to shrubby perennial, to 1.5 m tall, stems flexuous, white and brown simple pubescent with a few porrect-stellate hair clusters, with spines 11-14 mm long, flattened, straight or curved.  Leaves with petioles 20-45 mm long, blades orbicular in outline, 6-14 x 7-14 cm, base slightly cordate, apex acute, margins sharply angular or dentate, white pilose on both surfaces, acicular spines on midrib and veins below.  Inflorescence congested umbelliform, 1- or 2- to 6-flowered, pedicels 6-10 mm long, villose; calyx campanulate, 5 mm in diameter, lobes linear acuminate 5 mm long, villose; corolla 18-24 mm long, lobes lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, purple; anthers 9-12 mm long.  Berry 32-60 mm long, 30-45 mm in diameter, mammose, the basal protuberances 3 or 5, orange, shiny."  (Howard, 1989)"Shrub with spiny stems, pinnately lobed, spiny alternate leaves, purple rotate flowers, and a large orange, irregularly shaped berry" (Whistler, 1988; p. 37).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "infrequently cultivated near sea level" (Smith, 1991; p. 11).  In Samoa, "rare in pastures on central Upolu" (Whistler, 1988; p. 37).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Greater Antilles, Central and South America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: DA 8992 (L.2952, L.3437)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Flynn 5275 (BISH 634129), Lorence 7416 (BISH 637260)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: UH students s.n. (BISH 645582), Neal s.n. (BISH 70056), Suehiro s.n. (BISH 567709)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: D. Frohlich & A. Lau 2010032201 (BISH)
Apparently naturalized in a parking lot.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: MacKee 31708
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 496)
Abundant; planted by the natives as ornamentals or curiosities.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 59)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 427)
In thickets and weaste places along roads at low altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 37)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
200-1300 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 220)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 80)
Cultivated only


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This page was created on 1 SEP 2002 and was last updated on 8 JUN 2011.