Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Solanum betaceum
Cav., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: tamarillo, tree tomato

French: arbre à tomates, tomate de La Paz, tomate en arbre

Spanish: tamarillo, tomate de árbol, tomate serrano

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small tree, 2-7 m tall.  Branches densely puberulent.  Leaf blades simple, unlobed, chartaceous, acuminate at apex, moderately puberulent adaxially, more densely so on veins, densely puberulent abaxially; petioles densely puberulent.  Trunk leaves simple, unlobed, the blade ovate, 25-40 cm long, 20-35 cm wide, length:width ratio ca. 1-1.5:1, the base cordate to auriculate with basal lobes 3-6 cm long; petioles 15-25 cm long.  Crown leaves (3-) 4 per sympodial unit, simple, unlobed, the blade ovate, 7-20 cm long, 6-15 cm wide, length:width ratio ca. 1.5:1, the base cordate to auriculate with basal lobes 1.5-3 cm long; petioles 3-10 cm long.  Inflorescence (unbranched or) branched, 10-50-flowered, 2.5-15 cm long; peduncle 1.5-9 cm long; rachises 2-8 cm long; pedicels 10-20 mm long, 15-50 mm long in fruit, 3-10 mm apart, articulated above the base, leaving pedicellar remnants 1-3 mm long; peduncle, rachises, and pedicels moderately to densely puberulent.  Flower buds ellipsoidal to ovoid, obtuse to acuminate at apex.  calyx fleshy, sparsely to densely puberulent, the radius 3-5 mm, the lobes 1-2 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, obtuse to truncate, apiculate.  Corolla pinkish white, subcoriaceous to fleshy, stellate, the radius 10-15 mm, the tube 2-3 mm long, the lobes narrowly triangular, 7-12 mm long, 2.5-4 mm wide, glabrous abaxially and adaxially, the margin tomentose, the apex acute.  Antherthecae pale yellow, lanceolate, 5-6 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, the pores directed adaxially and distally; connective bright lemon-yellow, narrowly triangular, 4.5-5 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, abaxially slightly shorter than thecae at apex, equal to or slightly shorter than them at base, adaxially absent.  Ovary glabrous; style glabrous, cylindrical, not dilated distally, 5-6 mm long, 0.5-1 mm in diameter, exserted 1-2.5 mm beyond stamens; stigma truncate, 0.5-1 mm in diameter.  Fruit ellipsoidal or ovoid, obtuse or acute at apex, 4-10 cm long, 3-5 cm in diameter, glabrous, yellow to orange, red, or purple, often with darker longitudinal stripes; mesocarp with stone cell aggregates; seeds 3-4 mm long, 3.5-4 mm wide, densely pubescent"  (Bohs, 1994; pp. 50-57).

Habitat/ecology:  "Cultivated throughout the Andes in subtropical climates, 1000-3000 m in elevation," introduced elsewhere (Bohs, 1994; pp. 50-57).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Bolivia, Argentina (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 54)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 54)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 54)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 54)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 52)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1223)
"Waste places, rubbish dumps, forest clearings or margins near dwellings".
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 54)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 56)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 55)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Bohs, Lynn (1994) (p. 55)


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This page was created on 21 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 2 SEP 2012.