Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Solanum americanum
Mill., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Solanum nigrum var. americanum (Mill.) O.E. Schulz

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shao hua long kui

English: American nightshade, black nightshade, glossy nightshade, small-flowered nightshade

Fijian: boro, malahome, mboro, mboro laukana, mboro ni veiwere, mboro ni yaloka ni ngata, mburosousou ni vavalangi, thevuthevu

French: morelle noire

Hawaiian: ‘olohua, polopolo, pōpolo, pōpolohua

Japanese: inuhozuki

Maori (Cook Islands): poro, poro puaka, poroporo

Marquesan: oupoo

Niuean: polo, polo fua, polo kai

Samoan: māgalo, māgalo, polo, polo

Spanish: hierba mora, hierba mora negra

Tahitian: ‘oporo

Tongan: polo, polo kai

Wallisian: polo, polo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or short-lived perennial herbs up to 1.2 m tall, erect or wide-spreading, straggly with age, sometimes flushed purplish; stems sometimes angled or narrowly winged with lines of tissue from base of petiole, the wings smooth or with sort soft teeth, unarmed, glabrous or sparsely pubescent with simple curbed hairs.  Leaves simple, alternate, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, margins entire or with up to 8 short, blunt, rounded lobes, sinuses shallow and rounded, greatly variable in size, up to 10 cm long on young growth and up to 2 long on aged distal twigs, usually ca. 6 cm long and 3 cm wide, apex acute to acuminate, base truncate to cuneate and continued as a narrow wing along petiole, petioles 1-4 cm long.  Flowers perfect, actinomorphic, in extra-axillary umbelliform cymes, peduncles 1-2.5 cm long, flowers congested at apex, pedicels 5-8 mm long; calyx campanulate, 1-2 mm long, the lobes obtuse, ca. 1 mm long; corolla white or occasionally purple-tinged, stellate, 0.8-0.9 cm in diameter, with a yellowish green star-shaped area, the lobes ca. 1.5 mm wide; stamens inserted near base of corolla tube; filaments with spreading hairs on inner side, 1-2 mm long; anthers oblong, 1.5-2 mm long, opening by pores or short slits; ovary globose, ca. 1 mm in diameter, glabrous; style erect, 2.5-4 mm long, pubescent in lower part; stigma capitate, at level of anther pores.  Berries glossy black, succulent, readily shed when ripe, sclerotic granules 0-4, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, pedicels erect or recurved in fruit, up to 4 cm long, calyx somewhat enlarged and often reflexed.  Seeds numerous, 1-1.5 mm long, compressed, testa minutely reticulate" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1268-1269).

Habitat/ecology:  "Occasional to common among rocks, along sand beaches and trails, in woodlands and fields; a ubiquitous weed, native in the Old World and widely distributed there and in the Americas" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; p. 480).

In Hawai‘i, "possibly naturalized in open sites from coastal to wet forest, subalpine woodland, and disturbed roadsides and pasture, 0-2,380 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1268-1269).  In Fiji, "occasional to abundant from hear sea level to an elevation of about 1,130 m as a weed in villages, clearings, gardens, canefields, and plantations, and on open gravel banks and waste land" (Smith, 1991; pp. 12-13).  "Occasional in sunny disturbed places and croplands" (Whistler, 1988; p.37). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 196).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "North and South America, exact native range obscure; widely naturalized in tropics"  (GRIN).  Most probably an early introduction throughout the Pacific area. "[C]ommon in disturbed areas from southern Georgia to Florida, west to California, and south through Mexico to Central and South America (Schilling, 1981); additionally it now occurs as an abundant weed throughout much of the Paleotropics." (Smith, 1991; pp. 12-13).  "Aboriginally introduced, or possibly native, to Polynesia" (Whistler, 1988; p. 37).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 976
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Flynn, Tim (year unknown)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 957
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
Subsp. nutans (R.J.F. Henders.) R.J.F. Henders Vouchers cited: A.N. Rodd 1751 (K, NSW), P.S. Green 1571 (A, BRI, K), L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1272 (BRI, K, NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
Subsp. nutans (R.J.F. Henders.) R.J.F. Henders Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 151 (CHR); 1971, K.S. Harley (BRI, K); P.S . Green 1486 (A)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 61)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 61)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Darwin, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Wolf, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinzón Group
Pinzón Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Wolf Island
Wolf Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Takamatsu 772 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 137)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4225 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 772 (BISH)
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fulanga Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 12-13)
Voucher cited: Smith 1174
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 12-13)
Voucher cited: Smith 206
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 12-13)
Voucher cited: DA 5717
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 12-13)
Vouchers cited: DA 9675, Greenwood 105, Gillespie 4348, Smith 9450, DA 1908, Smith 9070, DA 9544, DA 11049, DA 11088, DA 12268
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 12-13)
Voucher cited: Weiner 248
French Polynesia
Clipperton Island
Clipperton (Arue, Avera) Island   Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Huku Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9399 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8321)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum americanum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 1280 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4154 (PAP), J. Florence 4365 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11650 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 273)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10290 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2195 (PAP), J. Florence 5031 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 273)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10560 (PA)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10560 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 273)
Voucher cited: BRY 26037
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 22 (PAP), J. Florence 2724 (PAP), J. Florence 3853 (PAP), J. Florence 3937 (PAP), J. Florence 3946 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Marotiri Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11206 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11228 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6038 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 22753)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum americanum
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island probably native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island probably native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island probably native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 16)
Occasional near quarters, at margins of naupaka in central plain, in Verbesina, and in open areas.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island probably native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island possibly native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 11)
Scattered along trail from lagoon to camp.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: K.R. Wood et al. 9301 (BISH, PTBG, US), K.R. Wood & VanderWerf 9870 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lisianski Island possibly native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 14)
Not common.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island probably native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island probably native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Nihoa Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island probably native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island probably native
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef possibly native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 20)
Southeast Island: Small patch of about 12-20 plants just inland of the lagoon and the inland Cynodon dactylon patch.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 32)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 39475 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31177, Fosberg 31180. Not seen in this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 32)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31177 (US), Fosberg 31180 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 32)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. vi)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3672
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1252)
"Scrub and open forest stands, cliffs, especially in dry coastal sites, sometimes rather moist gullies, occasionally a plantation weed".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 456)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 197)
Incorrectly as Solanum nigrum per Smith (1981). Vouchers cited: CHR 169995, CHR 169996, CHR 169997
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 37)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 46)
Polynesian introduction or native. Voucher cited: Whistler 10810
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 106)
Incorrectly as Solanum nigrum per Smith (1981). Voucher cited: Yuncker 9632 (BISH)
"A common weed in plantations and waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 50)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 43030)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum americanum Mill.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10137)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum nigrum var. americanum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 246-247)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence (legit M.L. Brooke) 11109 (PAP)
Adventice
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10774 (PAP)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 44962)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum americanum
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 37)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 87?
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Moseley s.n., Lawrence 138?
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 238)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15272
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3032)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum americanum Mill.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Barclay s.n., Crosby 117
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1268-1269)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-13)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-13)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Waste places, roadsides, fields; 100-2000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 219)
Along streams, in forests or on abandoned lands.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) probably native
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1252)
"Scrub and open forest stands, cliffs, especially in dry coastal sites, sometimes rather moist gullies, occasionally a plantation weed".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 80)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Waste places, roadsides, fields; 100-2000 m.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"In waste places, roadsides, fields; 100-2000 m".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 127)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38071)
Taxon name on voucher: Solanum americanum Mill.
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 138)
As Solanum nigrum var. americanum Shulz. Voucher cited: Stoddart 7238a


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This page was created on 7 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 22 APR 2011.