Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sida acuta
Burm.f., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: brum, purumu, purumu, purumu

Bikol: surusighid

Chamorro: escobilla, escobilla adumelon, escobilla papago, escobilla papagu

Chinese: huang hua ren

Chuukese: sioinen, siyóyinen

English: broom grass, broom weed, clock plant, common fanpetals, common wireweed, Paddy's lucerne, southern sida, spiny-head sida

Fijian: deni vuaka, ndeni vuaka, ndeniosa, qawenilawe

Filipino: escuba

French: herbe à balais, herbe à paniers, herbe panier

Iloko: basbasot

Japanese: kahwinyotz

Mangarevan: koa, kowai iva

Maori (Cook Islands): pulumi, purūmu

Marquesan: au hopa, hopa, hopa, hopa, kopa, puehu, puehu enana

Niuean: mautofu, motofu

Palauan: keak

Pohnpeian: kahwinyotz, kawenioas, selmei

Samoan: mautofu, mautofu

Spanish: babosilla, escoba, escoba blanca, escoba negra, escobilla, escobilla blanca, escobilla cabezuda, escobilla negra, huinar, malva colorado, malva de castilla

Tagalog: walis-walisan

Tahitian: burume, porumu

Tongan: te‘ehoosi, te‘ekosi

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A small, erect, much branched, perennial shrub or herb; ranging from 30 to 100 cm in height, with a strong taproot; stem and branches flattened at the extremities, fibrous, almost woody at times; leaves alternate, slender, lanceolate, acute, margins toothed, 1.2 to 9 cm or more long, 0.5 to 4 cm wide, lower surface smooth or with sparse, short, branched, starlike (stellate) hairs, with fairly prominent veins; petiole 3 to 6 mm long, hairy, with a pair of stipules, at least one lanceolate-linear, 1 to 2 mm broad, three- to six-nerved, often curved, finely hairy, the other stipule narrower, one- to four-nerved; flowers 1 to 2 cm in diameter, solitary or in densely crowded axillary heads; pedicels 3 to 8 mm, slender, jointed near the middle; calyx five-lobed; sepals pale green, triangular, acute, about 6 mm long; petals five, joined at base, 6 to 9 mm or more long, light yellow, yellow, or pale orange, with a shallow  notch at the apex; ovary eight-celled, one-ovulate; stamens of many filaments arising from a tube; style divided into six branches; fruit a capsule, 3 to 4.5 mm in diameter, rough, consisting  of five to eight (rarely more) carpels which break at maturity into equal, one-seeded, segments (mericarp), each of which has two glabrous or nearly glabrous awns or beaks 1 to 1.5 mm long; seeds small, roughly triangular, 1.5 mm long, with a deep depression on each of the sides, reddish brown or black.  Sida acuta is often confused with Sida rhombifolia, but can be distinguished from that species by its smaller and narrower lanceolate leaves (those of S. rhombifolia are rhomboid or diamond shaped), the shorter pedicels of the flower, and by the two awns of the carpels (S. rhombifolia has one awn or none)" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 426).

"A low shrub to 1 m tall (rarely 2 m) with slender tough stems; leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute, obtuse or rounded at base, 1.5-6 cm long; 5-20 mm wide, sharply serrate, stellate-pubescent beneath; petioles 3-5 mm long; blade 3-nereved from base, pinnately branched above the base; stipules linear-acute, about 1 cm long; flowers 1 or 2 in axils, pedicels to about 1 cm long; corolla about 6-14 mm broad, yellow; fruit 4-5 mm broad, 6-8-carpellate; seeds dark reddish-brown, 1.5 mm long; ripe carpels with 2 beaks, grooved on the back"  (Stone, 1970; p. 415).

Habitat/ecology:  "Mainly a weed of the tropics and subtropics.  Although it grows widely throughout the tropics, it can be found at higher elevations.  It has been reported up to 1,500 m in Indonesia.  The weed is frequently found in pastures, wastelands, cultivated lands, roadsides, lawns, and in planted forests.  Once the plant becomes established, it is very competitive, holding and denying sites to other plants. It does appear to do best in disturbed habitats.  The plant grows well in many soils, including some heavy clays, and can tolerate dry as well as high rainfall conditions.  In Fiji it is most aggressive in the dry zones.  It has a deep taproot which can withstand drought, mowing, or shallow infrequent tillage.  Tough woody stems also aid in its persistence" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 426).  "A major weed of pastures and roadsides and also important in orchards and plantations, though not in cultivation" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 18).  "Occasional in waste areas and roadsides" (Whistler, 1988; p. 29).

In Guam, "common around villages in waste ground"  (Stone, 1970; p. 415).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open and shaded sites, from near sea level up to ca. 790 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 897).  In Fiji, "naturalized in waste places, plantations, canefields, and pastures and along roadsides" (Smith, 1981; p. pp. 436-437). In Tonga, "a rather common waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 181).

Propagation:  Seed.  "The awned mericarps are spread by adhering to clothing and livestock, in mud on vehicles, and as contaminants in hay and seed crops" (Smith, 2002; pp. 40-41).

Native range:  Unknown; a pantropical weed, perhaps indigenous in Central America (Smith, 1981; pp. 436-437).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Manu‘a Islands introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 18)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 3)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
S. acuta x rhombifolia?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1941 (US), Fosberg 31702 (US), Fosberg 31719 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58865
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Voucher cied: Falanruw 1647
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Moore 408 (US), Fosberg 31362 (US), Anderson 563 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1949) (voucher ID: PTBG 23592)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1978) (voucher ID: PTBG 23415)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1724 (US), Evans 2433 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 267 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1949) (voucher ID: PTBG 22240)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7865 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2010) (voucher ID: PTBG 33534)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta Burm. f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21123)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta N. L. Burm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2789 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 109)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 42 (NY, PTBG), E. Albert 168 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 3871 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43825)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 515)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta Burm. f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 436-437)
Vouchers cited: US 12252, DA 1135
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 436-437)
Vouchers cited: Gillespie 4795.5, DA 5744
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 436-437)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 674
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 436-437)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 990
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 436-437)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 99, DA 2914, DA 10435, DA 2810, DA 2908, DA 9145, DA 10739, DA 3030, DA 9940
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11165 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-238)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. acuta
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Voucher cited: J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9337 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. carpinifolia (L. f.) Borss. Waalk.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes. Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence, W.L. Wagner, J. Florence, Y. Séchan & S. Bishop 6166 (PAP), J. Florence 7412 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6351)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta subsp. carpinifolia
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-238)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. acuta
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Voucher cited: J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9430 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. acuta, subsp. carpinifolia (L. f.) Borss. Waalk.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Vouchers cited: M.-H. Sachet 1234 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1297 (PAP); subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes: B.G. Decker 678 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1024 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1092 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. acuta, subsp. carpinifolia (L. f.) Borss. Waalk.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta and subsp. carpinifolia. Vouchers cited: P.A. Savatier 695 (PAP), J. Florence 4106 (PAP), J. Florence 4137 (PAP), J. Florence 4140 (PAP), J. Florence 6927 (PAP), J. Florence 8441 (PAP), J. Florence 8516 (PAP), B.G. Decker 2111 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. acuta, subsp. carpinifolia (L. f.) Borss. Waalk.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. acuta, subsp. carpinifolia (L. f.) Borss. Waalk.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 1457 (PAP); subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes: B.G. Decker 1853 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Subsp. acuta, subsp. carpinifolia (L. f.) Borss. Waalk.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 2240 (PAP); subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes: J. Florence 4427 (PAP), B.G. Decker 2292 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-238)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64803 (US)
Rare
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta and subsp. carpinifolia.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia (C. Linnaeus f.) Borssum-Waalkes. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10298 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 235-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 60920 (PAP); subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes: J. Florence 2091 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37690)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta Burm. f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37689)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta Burm. f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 178)
Voucher cited: Quayle 109
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
also subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4028 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 64994 (PAP); subsp. acuta; J. Florence 2513 (PAP), J. Florence 3887 (PAP), J. Florence 4033 (PAP), J. Florence 4664 (PAP); subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes: J. Florence 2261 (PAP), J. Florence 2853 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Grant 4848 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
?
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10102 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes. Voucher cited: J. Florence 5622 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes. Voucher cited: J. Florence 6337 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum Waalkes. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5538 (PAP), J. Florence 5983 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 238-240)
subsp. carpinifolia J. Borssum-Wallkes
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. acuta and subsp. carpinifolia
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 415)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4142 (GUAM), Stone 4995 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 23595)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 23596)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 23597)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 897)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 897)
Voucher cited: Heller 2424 (BISH,CU)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 897)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 142)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 897)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Banaba Island
Banaba (Ocean) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Voucher: Imada 2003-111 (BISH 697722)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Rongelap (Roñlap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujelang Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujelang Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34180 (US)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
also S. acuta x rhombifolia?
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 167)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58615 (US), Fosberg 58649 (US), Fosberg 58806 (US), Thaman & Manner 23 (SUVA), Thaman & Manner 96 (SUVA), Thaman & Manner 22303 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9558 (BRIU), Swarbrick 9582 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 98)
Voucher cited: Montrouzier 8 (LY)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 98)
Voucher cited: Schmid 2338 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 98)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45851
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n., Vieillard 139, MacKee 4055, Toutain 3463 (NOU)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 116-117)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170352, CHR 170345
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 29)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 81)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10150 (BISH)
"Occasional along roadsides, in waste areas and plantations".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 163-164)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 361)
Common, an abundant and persistent weed of plantations, pasture, roadsides, etc.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 121)
At low altitudes, mainly in areas with seasonal rainfall.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 33-34)
In open waste places; a ubiquitous weed.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 29)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Dominant invader.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 237)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Soakai 571
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 181)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15977
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 181)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15802
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 181)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Croby 3
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 181)
Cited: Crosby.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 180)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 40-41)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 40-41)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 428)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 99)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 334-335)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 429)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 334-335)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 428)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 334-335)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 428)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 80)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 428)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 18)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
North Keeling Island
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 154)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 863 (K, US), Rhyne 776 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 28)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38085)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida acuta Burm. f.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 334-335)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 127)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7273b (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52094 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: Robertson 2748, Robertson 1691
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 161)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3009 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 171)
Vouchers cited: Robertson 2361 (K), Robertson 2362 (K)

Comments:  A declared noxious weed in Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Smith, 2002; pp. 40-41).

Control: 

Physical: "Controlled by chipping or cultivation. Suppressed by slashing and vigorous, well-managed, competitive pasture species. Tolerates some shade" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 29).

Chemical: "Susceptible to: 1) residual herbicides, including 2,4-D, glyphosate, dicamba and fluroxypyr at standard rates; 2) translocated herbicides, including 2,4-D, glyphosate, dicamba and fluroxypyr at standard rates" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 29).

Biological: "Possible natural enemies are discussed by Waterhouse and Norris (1987). Work is in progress in Australia using the leaf-eating beetle, Calligrapha pantherium" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 29).

Additional information:
Additional online information about Sida acuta is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Sida acuta as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Sida acuta may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Anon. 1988. Weed list for American Samoa by cropping system. Checklist dated 07/13/88, origin unknown. 3 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM515(Blackburn, B. 242).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la PolynÚsie franšaise, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1955. Northern Marshall Islands Expedition, 1951-1952. Land biota: vascular plants. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 39. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 22 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1983. Natural history of Cousin Island. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McIntyre, Guy. 1991. Weeds of sugar cane in Mauritius, their description and control. Mauritius Sugar Industry Reseach Institute. 151 pp.

Merlin, M./Juvik, J. 1996. Irá me neeniier nón Chuuk: Plants and their Environments in Chuuk. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp. .

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Mune, T. L./Parham, J. W. 1967. The declared noxious weeds of Fiji and their control. Third edition. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 48. 87 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG37690(Art Whistler W 4875).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG37689(Art Whistler W 4874).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG38085(Art Whistler 9814).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG237(Tim Flynn 6874).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2010. Voucher specimen #PTBG33534(M. J. Balick 3871).

Ohba, T. 1994. Flora and vegetation of the northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Biological Expedition to the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. In A. Asakua & T. Furuki, eds.  Natural History Research, Special issue no. 1, Chiba, Japan: Natural History Museum and Institute. pp. 13-69.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 27 DEC 2010.