Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Setaria viridis
(L.) P.Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Chaetochloa viridis (L.) Scribn.; Panicum viride L.; Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. viridis (L.) Thell.; Setaria pachystachys (Franch. & Sav.) Matsum.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: gou wei cao

English: bottle grass, green bristle grass, green foxtail, green foxtail millet, green pigeon grass, pigeongrass, wild foxtail millet, wild millet

French: sétaire verte

Spanish: almorejo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-60 cm long; 3-5 -noded. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaf-sheaths outer margin hairy. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 4-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; glabrous. Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle scaberulous above. Panicle spiciform; linear; 1-10 cm long; 0.4-1 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis hispid, or pilose. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2-6 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; free throughout; 5-10 mm long. Involucral bristles persistent; few; in one whorl; 4-14 in principal whorl; 1-3 per spikelet; flexible; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous. Pedicels oblong. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; obtuse; 2-3 mm long; falling entire. Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 0.25-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse. Florets: Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; obtuse. Palea of lower sterile floret membranous (0.33-0.5 length of lemma). Fertile lemma elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2-3 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface rugulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate. Flower: Anthers 3; 0.8 mm long"  (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  In China (native), "hill slopes, roadsides, grassy waste places"  (Flora of China online).  On Taiwan, "in sandy seashores"  (Flora of Taiwan).  In New Zealand, "crops (potatoes, carrots), waste ground, gardens"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 588).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Canary and Madeira Islands, northern Africa, Europe, Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Morro Juanango introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"A weed of cultivation in temperate areas".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"A weed of cultivation in temperate areas".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"A weed of cultivation in temperate areas".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 588)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 14 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 4 APR 2011.