Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Setaria sphacelata
(Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb ex M.B.Moss, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: African bristle grass, golden timothy

French: queue de chien

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short, or elongated. Butt sheaths withering, or persistent and investing base of culm; with fibrous dead sheaths. Basal innovations subterete, or flabellate. Culms 20-300 cm long. Culm-nodes glabrous. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 10-50 cm long; 2-17 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex acuminate. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 3-50 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis pubescent. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; 1.5-12 mm long. Involucral bristles persistent; 6-15 in principal whorl; flexible; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 1.5-3.5 mm long; falling entire. Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.25-0.5 times length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3(-5) -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.33-0.66(-0.75) times length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; 1-3 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute. Palea involute; indurate"  GrassBase.

"Tufted perennial, glabrous or nearly so, often with stout rhizomes; culms 0.5-1.5 m tall, flattened; blades flat, rather lax, 4-10 mm wide; panicle dense, cylindric, 8-15 cm long, usually orange to purple, bristles mostly 5 or more, 3-6 mm long; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long; fruit finely rugose"  (Hitchcock, 1971).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "in mesic pastures in Kokomo, Maui"  (Starr, Martz & Loope, 2000).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Africa and Yemen (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 59)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
cv. 'Kazungula'
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 106)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
cv. 'Kazungula'. Voucher cited: W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 27 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38250)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C. E. Hubb ex M. B. Moss
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
cv. 'Kazungula'
Naturalisée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: R. Kami s.n. (BISH 427545), R. Kami s.n. (BISH 516906)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: C. Imada & T. Perkins 2002-11 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 23)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990804-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: K. Kawelo & J. Rohrer s.n. (BISH 687842)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
"Cultivé en pâturages".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 59)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 5)
Voucher: Lorence 9835 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3041)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria sphacelata (Schum.) Stapf. & Hubb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 129)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria sphacelata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 59)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 131)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 131)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 7)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 131)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 589)
Persisting around experimental plots, where it was introduced.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 127)


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This page was created on 8 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 31 MAY 2011.