Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Setaria parviflora
(Poir.) Kergu‚len, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Setaria geniculata P. Beauv.; Setaria gracilis Kunth

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: you gou wei cao

English: knotroot bristle grass, knotroot foxtail, slender pigeon grass, yellow foxtail

French: que de rat

Hawaiian: mau‘u Kaleponi

Spanish: cepillo, chilena, chilicua, cola de zorro, grama, gusanillo, munchira, gusanito, gusano, limpia botella, pega-pega, rabo de gato, rabo de zorro

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials with a hard, knotty caudex or with short rhizomes; culms tufted, erect or sometimes decumbent and even rooting at lower nodes, 3-12 dm long, up to 2 mm in diameter, hollow, glabrous, branching from lower and middle nodes.  Sheaths compressed, keeled, glabrous, the margins scarious; ligule ciliate, less than 1 mm long; blades flat, up to 25 cm long, 2-10 mm wide, upper surface glabrous or with a few long hairs near base.  Panicles dense, spike-like, 1-8 cm long, up to 2.5 cm in diameter (including the yellow or bronze-colored bristles), the primary branches up to 0.5 cm long, the bristles subtending the spikelet 4-12, antrorsely scabrous, 2-15 mm long, rachis puberulent; spikelets green or purple-tinged, 1 (2) per primary branch, ellipsoid, 2-2.8 mm long; first glume deltate, 0.8-1 mm long, 3-4-nerved, second glume 1.1-1.4 mm long, much shorter than second lemma, 5-nerved; first lemma herbaceous to somewhat coriaceous, as long as the spikelet, 5-7-nerved, midnerve sometimes grooved, apex apiculate; first palea ovate, hyaline, 2-nerved, apex acute; second lemma often purple, rigid, ovate, strongly convex, transversely rugose, apex acute; second palea equal, rugose, concave, keels prominent, enclosing base of the caryopsis.  Caryopsis whitish, ellipsoid"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1592, 1912).

"This species is distinguished by the short, knotty rhizomes, the short, hairy ligule, the knee-like joints at the stem base and the typical foxtail inflorescence" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 753).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Found in perennial and annual crops, pastures, roadsides, gardens, orchards, ditch banks, lake borders and waste areas. It is native to the tropical Americas and grows from sea level to over 3000 m in this region"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 753).  "In swamps and fields, along roadsides, and common in cultivated ground, at low and medium elevations" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; p. 878).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in wet to dry, disturbed areas such as pastures, urban sites, agricultural land, along roadsides, and mesic to wet forest, 0-1,480 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1592).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical Americas (Holm et al., 1997; p. 753).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 225)
As Setaria geniculata.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592, 1912)
As S. gracilis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592, 1912)
As S. gracilis. Voucher cited: Heller 2469 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: J. Rémy 106 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592, 1912)
As S. gracilis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592, 1912)
As S. gracilis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592, 1912)
As S. gracilis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592, 1912)
As S. gracilis
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 585)
"Tracksides, road cuttings, waste land; also recorded as a weed in vineyards".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 58)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 72)
As Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,800 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 347)
As Setaria geniculata (Lam.) P. Beauv. On hillslopes or in wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
As Setaria gracilis Kunth
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 585)
"Tracksides, road cuttings, waste land; also recorded as a weed in vineyards".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 79)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 751)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 28 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.